Ovarian cancer is defined as a condition of abnormal ovarian cells growth of ovaries. It is one of most common cancer in US, according to the statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, an estimated 21,880 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 13,850 deaths.
Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud)
Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud) is a species of fernin the genus of Thelypteris, belonging to the family Thelypteridaceae native to China. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of treatment of hydropsy and traumatic bleeding (Institute of Botany, 1976; Ding, 1982).
The total flavonoid fraction from the roots of M. torresiana shows significant antitumor activity(35).
Protoapigenone, a novel flavonoid isolated from the whole plant Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud), exhibited a significant cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells MDAH-2774 and SKOV3 but not on the immortalized non-cancer ovarian epithelial cells HOSE 6-3 and HOSE 11-12, through S and G2/M phases arrest via decreasing the expression of p-Cdk2, Cdk2(the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B).), p-Cyclin B1 and Cyclin B1(activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and is essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition). This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B)(36)), as well as increasing the expression of inactive p-Cdc25C(antibody)(37).
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(35) In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Macrothelypteris torresiana and its acute/subacute oral toxicity by Huang XH1, Xiong PC, Xiong CM, Cai YL, Wei AH, Wang JP, Liang XF, Ruan JL(PubMed)
(37) Protoapigenone, a novel flavonoid, inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by Chang HL1, Su JH, Yeh YT, Lee YC, Chen HM, Wu YC, Yuan SS.(PubMed)