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Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Women Health: Most common Types of Cancer - Breast Cancer - Factors that influence treatment options - Hormone receptors sites and HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                          Breast Cancer

Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

                     Factors that influence treatment options

Breast cancer is first noticed as a painless lump in the breast or armpit and most often discovered by you or your partner may discover the lump or or your doctor during a routine physical exam.
Hormone receptors sites and HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2)
1. Hormone receptors
A hormone receptor is a receptor protein on the surface of a cell with the function of binding to a specific hormone in its interior. Estrogen receptors are that bind estrogen hormone and progesterone receptors are cells with the same.
Estrogen and progesterone receptor status tests
They are the tests to determine whether the tumor's growth is influenced by the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone by taking a sample of breast cancer tissue obtained during a biopsy.
a. Cancer with hormones sensitive is always slower growing
b. Reponses well to hormones suppression treatment
c. If there is negative found in both tests (ER- and PgR-), hormone suppression treatments are not required (tuomor is not driven by hormones). Further testings are required to determine the best options.
# ER-0, PgR-0 is no estrogen and progesterone receptor found
#Er-1+, PgR-2+ small numbers of estrogen and progesterone receptors found accordingly
#ER-2+, PgR-2+ a medium numbers of estrogen and progesterone receptors found accordingly
# ER-3+, PgR-3+ large numbers of estrogen and progesterone receptors found accordingly.

2. Testing HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
About 30% of breast cancers are caused by over expression of its protein product or HER2.
If your cancer is no driven by either hormones estrogen or progesterone, you doctor my order the testing of HER2. HER2, a gene with function of signaling the growth and differentiation of cells. and a healthy breast has only 2 copies of the HER2 gene.
A test of HER 2 positive can be treat by the amplification of other genes and the use of the drug Herceptin, in combination with other chemotherapy drugs, otherwise your cancer is not caused by gene HER2.
a. IHC test
IHC is the most commonly used test ordered by your doctor to determine the number of HER2 receptor protein on the surface of the cancer cells done by a special staining process performed on fresh or frozen breast cancer tissue removed during biopsy.
*HER2-0 or HER2-1+ is considered HER2 negative
*HER2-2+ or HER2-3+ is considered HER2 positive.

b. FISH test (Fluorescence in situ hybridization test)
If the IHC test can not clearing provide results of the HER2 positive or negative then FISH will be required. FISH is considered more accurate to determine whether the cells have extra copies of the HER2 gene by vitalizing gene HER2 in breast cancer tissues removed during biopsy. HER2-positive or negative)
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