Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Article By Kyle J. Norton
Ovarian Cystadenoma is a types of cystic adenoma originated from the glandular cells and defined
as a condition of development of benign cyst which can grows to 12
inches in diameter and is filled with a mucous-type fluid material from
the tissues of ovary.
Types of ovarian cystadenoma
1. Serous cystadenomas
Serous cystadenomas, accounted for about 30% of ovarian tumors, also known as serous cystadenoma, is a very common type of benign ovarian tumor
filled with a thin, watery liquid. In rare case, it can become
cancerous, according to a study of Molecular genetic analysis of ovarian
serous cystadenomas, by Eric J Cheng, Robert J Kurman, Menglin Wang,
Robert Oldt III, Brant G Wang, David M Berman and Ie-Ming Shih,
researchers found that In fact, only 14% of serous cystadenomas are
clonal, suggesting that serous cystadenomas develop as a hyperplastic
expansion of ovarian surface epithelial inclusions. We speculate that a
small proportion of these cystadenomas become clonal and that
mutations of KRAS or BARF
in some of these clonal cystadenomas lead to the development of
serous borderline tumors, which are the precursors of low-grade serous
carcinoma. These findings have important implications for
understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian serous carcinoma, and for
the screening and treatment of ovarian cancer.
2. Ovarian mucinous cystadenomas
cystadenomas found in middle aged women in 75% of patients, are filled
with a sticky thick liquid. They can grow to the size of between 6 and
12 inches in diameter. In some cases, it can grow more than 25 cm in
diameter with hugh masses. In a study of A massive ovarian mucinous
cystadenoma: a case report Remah M Kamel , researcher concluded that
Management of ovarian cysts depends on the patient's age, the size of
the cyst and its histo-pathological nature. Conservative surgery as
ovarian cystectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate for benign
lesions. In our patient, left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed as
there was no ovarian tissue left and the tube was unhealthy. After
surgery, the patient should be followed-up carefully as some tumors
recur. Although the tumour was removed completely and intact with the
affected ovary, our patient was given appointments to be reviewed
every 3 months for a year.
1. Lower abdominal pain
2. Irregular menstrual periods
3. Abdomen pressure
5. Painful sexual intercourse
6. Pain during urination or bowel movements
7. Nausea and vomiting
13. Fatigue and tiredness
Diagnosis and tests
1. Endo-vaginal ultrasound:
you doctor suspects that you may have develop ovarian cysts, he or
she may order an Ultrasound to exam your pelvic organs. Ovarian
Cystadenoma can be diagnosed based on the appearance on the ultrasound.
2. CT scanning
your ultrasound image has found ovarian Cystadenoma, your doctor may
want to confirm the abnormalities by ordering the CT scan. A CT scan
generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken
around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional
picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed
by your doctor to see the extent of the cystic abnormalities.
a woman abdomen filled with a gas, your doctor makes small incision
and a laparoscope passes into your abdomen. By examining your abdomen
through the laparoscope, he or she can view the cysts and removes a
sample to view under microscope to determine whether the tumor is benign
4. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
(magnetic resonance imaging is one of many advanced technology used to
visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body
used effectively in providing the better details of the cysts and
According to the study of Developing an MR Imaging Strategy for Diagnosis of Ovarian Masses, by Izumi Imaoka, MD, Akihiko Wada, MD, Yasushi Kaji, MD, Takafumi Hayashi, MD, Michiharu Hayashi, MD, Michimasa Matsuo, MD and Kazuro Sugimura, MD.,
researchers concluded that MR imaging is a useful modality for
differentiating benign and malignant ovarian tumors, and a specific
diagnosis can be made for certain pathologic
entities. Morphologic appearance, signal intensity characteristics, and
adequate use of intravenous contrast material
provide information for arriving at the correct diagnosis.
most of ovarian Cystadenoma are harmless they do not pose a threat to
most women's health. Most doctors suggest to use ultrasonic
observation or endovaginal ultrasound to monitor the growth
frequently, unless there is necessary then surgery may be required to
remove them depending to the concern of fertility of the patient and
the size of cysradenoma
A. Oral Contraceptives
In some cases, if the size of the ovarian cysadenoma is small and
surgery is not possible for what ever reasons, oral contraceptive pill
may be beneficial, by
a. Reducing the period pain by creating a continual pregnancy like state
inhibiting the over production of prostaglandins which cause the
muscles spam contraction of ovarian muscles resulting of less menstrual
cramps and pain.
c. Reducing the risk of ovarian Cystadenom to become cancerous and stopping or reducing of period blood flow.
g. Shrinking ovarian Cystadenoma
Reducing substance to activate the menstrual cycle because of pregnancy like state.
2. Risks and side effects
a. Growth of fibroids
of fibroid is caused high level of estrogen and progesterone. The
intake of the pill increase the level of both hormones resulting in
increase the risk of growth of fibroid.
b. Recurrent of menstrual symptoms
Some women stop taking the pill may see all the menstrual symptoms coming back.
c. Blood clots
Estrogen in the pill may cause blood clots in the small vessels in the leg and the lung.
d. Stroke and heart diseases
Study shows that women who have higher natural estrogen levels may have a higher risk of stroke and heart diseases.
e. Depression and mood swing
the beginning, it may cause abnormal fluctuations in estrogen and
progesterone elevate both physical and psychological stress, eventually
resulting in both depression and mood swing
f. Bleeding and spotting
and spotting is normal for the first six months for women who begin
with any oral contraceptive combination pill treatment.
g. Lost interest in sex
Some women may experience lower sexual desire
h. Nutritional deficiency
Oral contraceptive pill causes vitamin and mineral imbalances or deficiencies.
aim of the surgery is to cure , if the size of cystadenoma is small
and the women are healthy in most cases, it can be removed without
causing serious side effects. If the size of cystadenom is too large,
removing the ovary may be necessary.
Also known as ovariotomy, oophorectomy is a medical procedure to
have one ovary removed, depending to the size of the cystadenoma.
After oophorectomy, the woman will continue to have menstrual cycle
and can become pregnant and follow up management may be necessary.
Unilateral oophorectomy is performed in the hospital with general
anesthesia, In the surgery, a laparoscopic, thin tube containing a tiny
lens and light that inserts through a small incision in the navel
with a camera on the other end to allow your doctor to see the
abdominal cavity on a video monitor. After the ovary is detached, it
is removed though a small incision at the top of the vagina.
b.1. Vertical incisions
incisions give the doctor better view of of the abdominal cavity but
it will leave some notable scar. After the incision the ovary is
b.2. Horizontal incision
If the ovary is removed by horizontal incisions it will leave a less notable scar.
c. Risk and side effects
Surgical and anesthetic risks
If the ovarian Cystadenom is small in size, risk of becoming cancerous
is low, fertility is a concern and surgery is necessary, cystectomy
with a laparoscopic, may be a good choice as it is an effective
treatment of non cancerous ovarian Cystadenom by removing only the
Cystectomy in the pelvic region.
b. Risk and side effects
Surgical and anesthetic risks
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