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Progesterone is a steroid hormone, produced by the women body to regulate part of the menstrual cycle and supporting the gestation and the process of sperm in egg fertilization.
1. Progesterone and endometrium
Progesterone enhance the production of certain proteins during the second half of the menstrual cycle for its receptivity and successful establishment of pregnancy. Insufficient progesterone concentration may result in infertility and pregnancy loss, such as miscarriage and stillbirth. According to the study of "Progesteronefunction in human endometrium: clinical perspectives" byYoung SL, Lessey BA., posted in PubMed, researchers found that recent evidence demonstrates exquisite sensitivity of normal endometrium to very low levels of progesterone stimulation, suggesting that progesterone insufficiency should not be a common cause of reproductive failure.
2. Progesterone and placenta
In pregnancy, progesterone is produced by the placenta, and levels remain elevated throughout the pregnancy for the protection of the fetus. In a study of "Progesterone synthesis by the human placenta" by Tuckey RC, posted inPubMed, researchers wrote that Evidence suggests that placental mitochondria have a near-saturating cholesterol concentration for P450scc, likely provided by the StAR-like protein MLN64, and cholesterol translocation to the P450scc is not a major site of regulation of progesterone synthesis. Cyclic AMP stimulatesprogesterone synthesis by the human placenta but uncertainty remains regarding the key hormones that control cyclic AMP levels. The mechanism of regulation of adrenodoxin reductase levels in the human placenta remains to be studied.
3. Progesterone and Milk Producing Glands
Progesterone also signals the growth of milk-producing glands of the women breasts as natural reaction of readiness for feeding the newborn. According to the study of "Progesterone signaling in mammary gland development" by Conneely OM, Mulac-Jericevic B, Arnett-Mansfield R., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that two distinct isoforms of PRs (PR-A and PR-B) are coexpressed in the mammary gland and display extensively overlapping but partially distinct gene regulatory properties in relaying the progesterone signal.
4. Progesterone and ovulation
Progesterone also plays an important role in regulation of women menstrual cycle ovulation. According to the study of "Progesterone receptors and ovulation" by Conneely OM., posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that Recent studies have revealed that the LH stimulus that triggers ovulation is transduced by PRs residing in mural granulosa cells that induce expression of paracrine signals that interact with cumulus cells to control cumulus matrix function and expansion to facilitate follicular rupture.
5. Progesterone and breast cyst
Progesterone helps to balance the levels of estrogen to prevent the occurring of breast cysts. women with low levels of progesterone are susceptible to the growth of breast cysts, according to the study of [Hormonal abnormalities in women withbreast cysts].[Article in Polish]" by Wypych K, Kuźlik R, Wypych P., posted inPubMed, researchers filed the result that Low progesterone activity in all women and low estrogen activity in 65.3% were shown. Absolute high estrogen activity was diagnosed only in 8.7% women with gross breast cysts.
6. Progesterone as an diuretic
It is essential role for progesterone in regulating salt and water absorption, according to the study of "Progesterone down-regulates the open probability of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel via a Nedd4-2-dependent mechanism" by Michlig S, Harris M, Loffing J, Rossier BC, Firsov D., posted inPubMed, researchers concluded that Collectively, these results demonstrate that the binding of active Nedd4-2 to ENaC is a crucial step in the mechanism of ENaC inhibition by progesterone. Upon activation of ERK, the effect of Nedd4-2 on ENaC open probability can become more important than its effect on ENaC cell-surface expression.
6. Progesterone and thyroid hormone
In a study of Thirty-six women aged 23.5+/-0.6 years were investigated. The parameters of interest were: plasma selenium concentration (Se) and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX3) (indicators of selenium status); serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteotropichormone (LH), and age of menarche (indicators of sex hormones secretion);thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in serum (anti-TPO), and thyroid volume (indicators of thyroid function), conducted by Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University, posted in PubMed, researchers found that The pairs of parameters: GPX3 and P4; LH and FSH exhibited the strongest associations. The thyroidfunction parameters were mainly influenced by GPX3 and P4.
7. Progesterone and sleep disturbance
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. For 3 wk, subjects took daily at 2300 h a capsule of either 300 mg of progesterone or placebo. Sleep was polygraphically recorded during the last two nights, and blood samples were obtained at 15-min intervals for 24 h., conducted by Section of Endocrinology of the Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Saint-Pierre, and Sleep Laboratory, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Charleroi, posted in PubMed, researchers found thatProgesterone had no effect on undisturbed sleep but restored normal sleep when sleep was disturbed (while currently available hypnotics tend to inhibit deep sleep), acting as a "physiologic" regulator rather than as a hypnotic drug. Use ofprogesterone might provide novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of sleep disturbances, in particular in aging where sleep is fragmented and of lower quality.
8. Progesterone and coagulation
Progesterone can reduce the risk of blood loss by narrowing of the blood vessels to prevent blood loss, according to the study of "Effects of progestogens on haemostasis" by Kuhl H., posted in PubMed, researchers found that . In veins, progestogens may increase distensibility and capacitance resulting in a decreased blood flow. In predisposed women, this may lead to venous stasis and thrombosis. In arteries, progestogens may act as vasoconstrictors, and may enhance vasospasms at sites of injured endothelium which finally may lead to ischemic diseases.
9. Progesterone and osteoporosis
According to the study of "Progesterone and bone: actions promoting bone health in women" by
Seifert-Klauss V, Prior JC., posted in PubMed, researchers found that In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P(4) in postmenopausalwomen with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E(2)-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E(2) alone. P(4) fracture data are lacking. P(4) prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesteroneco-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.
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