Papaya may process a potential effect in reducing the risk the diseases associated with the overexpression of oxidative stress, some scientists found.
Oxidative stress is the production of overexpression of free radicals in the body compared to levels of antioxidants. In other words, it is the imbalance of the ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidants produced by the body.
Free radicals are unstable molecules with unpaired electrons in the outer layer of the atom. The highly chemically reactive free radicals are ready to steal the electron from other molecules, leading to the domino's effect that cannot stop until stabilized by antioxidants.
These chain reactions are caused by oxidative stress, the most leading causes of the development of number of diseases.
The prolonged period of high levels of oxidative stress in the body not only can cause damage but also can alter the DNA to healthy cells, thus increasing the risk of cancers.
Antioxidants are stabilized molecules that inhibited the oxidation caused by free radicals.
The human bodily antioxidant can be acquired either through dietary sources such as the intake of fruits and vegetables and supplements or produced by the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidize, glutathione reductase, and catalases.
Patients with chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress are found to have low levels of antioxidant enzymes and overexpression of free radicals in the body.
Truly, free radicals have duo effects, they can either harmful or beneficial to human health. Dr. István Bókkon in the study "Recognition of Functional Roles of Free Radicals" said, "production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are strongly regulated processes that play central roles in most cell signaling. During physiological and pathophysiology processes, ROS and RNS can act as secondary messengers and control gene expression, apoptosis, cell growth, cell cycle, cell adhesion, chemotaxis, protein-protein interactions, and enzymatic functions, Ca2+ and redox homeostasis, to name but a few functions". and
"ROS and RNS also act as signaling molecules in cerebral circulation and are required for signal processes such as synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and regulated production, release, and uptake of neurotransmitters".
However, the overexpression of free radicals is always bad for our bodies.
Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongs to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries
The chemical constituents of papaya include
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a).
In the concerns of the cytotoxicity of AOM in the mediation of oxidative stress, researchers at the Sultan Qaboos University conducted an experiment of Azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon cancer in rats.
Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) included in the study were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; the AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitoneal injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection.
AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues increased oxidative stress through the expression of decreased glutathione depletion and increased lipid peroxidation in rat colonic cells.
Treatment of AOM with PapPE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM.
The results address the importance of PapPE in the inhibition of oxidative stress before initiating colon cancer.
In order to obtain more information of the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, researchers at the Sultan Qaboos University, launched an investigation to examine the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.
PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner.
PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase).
PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity.
The collected information throughout the experiment suggested that papaya epicarp extract (PEE) protects the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells against oxidative stress by improving the levels of antioxidants in the tested cells.
More importantly, in oxidative stress caused by overexpression of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))- in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, t papaya epicarp extract acted as a potent free radical scavenger that protects the neurons against H(2)O(2).
And, papaya epicarp extract ameliorated glutathione depletion, restored total antioxidant capacity and augmented the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase),
Taken altogether, papaya extract can be used as a functional dietary ingredient for the protection against diseases associated with oxidative stress without inducing any side effects.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts by Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-Kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS1.(PubMed)
(2) Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity by Waly MI1, Guizani N, Ali A, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) Papaya epicarp extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by Guizani N1, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Saidi G, Singh V, Bhatt N, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) The antioxidant effect of fermented papaya preparation involves iron chelation by Prus E1, Fibach E.(PubMed)
(4) Recognition of Functional Roles of Free Radicals by István Bókkon, (Guest Editor)(PMC)
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