Causes and risk factors
The causes of osteroporosis are unknown, but the process of osteoporosis are caused by remolding disruption.
1. Lack of calcium
Lack of calcium, in women is caused by levels of estrogen. Under normal circumstance, as the depletion of numbers of egg in the ovaries causes the ovaries not responding to the estrogen stimulating hormones as the women enter the stage of menopause.
2. Lack of exercise
According to the artcle of Exercise and Osteoporosis - How exercise helps maintain bone health By Elizabeth Quinn, the author wrote, a survey of 350 middle-aged women found that those who were most active in their daily lives had significantly greater bone density in their spines, femurs and forearms than less active women. Another study from found that running strengthens the leg bones of both older and younger women.
Exercise also enhances muscle power, synthesis, and balance and reduces the likelihood of falls in the elderly.
In women, estrogen reduction increase with age, that can cause the loss of bone density, resulting of osteroporosis.
smoking inhibits osteoblasts which are mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone formation, In an article of The effects of smoking on bone health by Peter K. K. WONG, Jemma J. CHRISTIE and John D. WARK, researchers indicated that Compared with non-smokers, smokers are weaker, have poorer balance and impaired neuromuscular performance. In the study by Nelson et al., smokers had a decrease in physical and neuromuscular function, compared with non-smokers, 50–100% as great as that associated with a 5 year increase in age
Hyperthyroidism can increase loss of calcium and phosphorous in the urine and stool excretion, that can lead to loss of bone mineral.
Certain medications such as Steroid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP), Barbiturates, phenytoin and some other enzyme-inducing antiepileptics, etc can cause the loss of bone minerals density.
7. Low levels of estrogenEstrogen is best known for its protection against the loss of calcium of bone. The levels of estrogen is lower naturally with aging, that is the reason that osteroporosis happens most frequent in the women after entering stage of menopause. Excessive exercise can also disrupt the levels of estrogen, leading to abnormal menstrual cycle that can lead to increased risk of osteroporosis.
Excessive consumption of alcohol increases the risk of osteroporosis. In an article of Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Both Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Density by Karina M. Berg, MD, MS, Hillary V. Kunins, MD, MS, MPH, Jeffrey L. Jackson, MD, MPH, Shadi Nahvi, MD, Amina Chaudhry, MD, MPH, Kenneth A. Harris Jr. MD, MPH, Rubina Malik, MD, MS, Julia H. Arnsten, MD, MPH., researchers found that compared with abstainers and heavier drinkers, persons who consume 0.5 to 1.0 drink per day have a lower risk of hip fracture. Although available evidence suggests a favorable effect of alcohol consumption on bone density, a precise range of beneficial alcohol consumption cannot be determined.
9. Medical conditions
Chronic predisposing medical problems or disease requires the use of certain medication can increase the risk of osteroporosis, such as Steroids and Corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory intestinal illness, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis; prescription drugs used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, indigestion, excess stomach acid and ulcers:, etc.
Women are at higher risk in developing osteroporosis than men.
11. Family history
Increased risk of osteroporosis if a woman has a history of bone fracture.
In a study of Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects by Lawrence G. Raisz; University of Connecticut Health Center, Musculoskeletal Institute, Farmington, Connecticut, USA. researcher found that Gene deletion studies have shown that absence of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) or a downstream factor, osterix, are critical for osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, overexpression of Runx2 leads to a decrease in bone mass....
13. Vitamin D deficiency
In an article of Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 5, 1232S-1239S, May 2005 © 2005 American Society for Clinical Nutrition indicated that Adults with vitamin D deficiency have muscle weakness and are more likely to fall. In a meta-analysis, vitamin D supplementation appeared to reduce falls by 20%, and furthermore if 15 patients were treated with vitamin D, fall could be prevented.
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