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Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Women and Depression - The Psychological causes

Depression is a normal response as part of our daily lives such as the loss of s job, the death of a love one, and illness. Over 30 million Americans suffer from depression and the amount is increasing in an alarming rate. Depression may be a mental health disorder that can affect the way you eat, sleep, and the way you feel about yourself. The mild case of depression can be defeated by a variety of self-care techniques. Others require the treatment of medication, such as antidepressant medications and psychotherapy that help to reduce and sometimes eliminate the symptoms of depression. According to the National Mental Health Association, one in every eight women can expect to experience clinical depression during their lifetime. In gender perspective, women are twice at risk to develop depression than men.
Women and depression
In an article of Why Women Experience Depression More Than Men, by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Ph.D., Carla Grayson, Ph.D. & Judith Larson, Ph.D., the experts wrote that researchers have known for years that women experience depression more often than men do, but the reason for this gender difference has not been clear. A study published by researchers provides some answers by showing how social conditions and personality characteristics affect each other and contribute to the gender differences in depressive symptoms.
C. Psychological causes of depression in women
1. Rumination
When comes to stress, women tend to respond to distress by repetitively, pessimistically and passively focusing on the symptoms of distress, and on its possible causes and consequences. If the situation persistently over a period of time, it can lead to unipolar depression. In a study of Rethinking Rumination by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Blair E. Wisco and Sonja Lyubomirsky, researchers found that further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopathologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm.
2. Stress response
According to an article of Study: Why Women Are More Sensitive to Stress posted by LiveScience Staff, showed that women are more likely to suffer from depression and stress out than their cool male counterparts. New research suggests there might be a biological reason for the gender difference. According to The research appears online in Molecular Psychiatry. The study’s first author is Debra A. Bangasser, Ph.D., a fellow in Valentino’s laboratory researcher found that Analyzing the brains of rats that responded to a swim stress test, Valentino’s team found that in female rats, neurons had receptors for CRF that bound more tightly to cell signaling proteins than in male rats, and thus were more responsive to CRF. Furthermore, after exposure to stress, male rats had an adaptive response, called internalization, in their brain cells. Their cells reduced the number of CRF receptors, and became less responsive to the hormone. In female rats this adaptation did not occur because a protein important for this internalization did not bind to the CRF receptor.
3. Gender Intensification in Adolescence
Accordingly to the article of Gender Differences in Depression by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema. the author wrote Social pressure to conform to gender roles is thought to increase dramatically as children move through puberty. For girls, this may mean a reduction in their opportunities
and choices, either real or perceived. Girls also feel that if they pursue male-stereotyped
activities and preferences, such as interests in math and science or in competitive sports, they
are rejected by their peers. For many girls, especially white girls, popularity and social acceptance
become narrowly. This narrowing of acceptable behavior for girls in early adolescence may contribute to the increasein depression in girls at this time.
4. Body image and eating disorder
In a study of Body-image and eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: a longitudinal study, by Stice E, Hayward C, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Taylor CB., researchers found that the results were consistent with the assertion that the body-image- and eating-related risk factors that emerge after puberty might contribute to the elevated rates of depression for adolescent girls.
5. Etc.

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