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Monday, February 3, 2014

Hair Loss in Herbal Medicine Perspective

  Posted by Chantel Martiromo,  Article By Kyle J. Norton  

Decreased hormonal secretions due to aging stimulates the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase to converse testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT, affecting hair to grow back thinner or not grown back at all.  DHT shrinks the follicles, causing hair thins and hair receded at the forehead, crown and temple for men and thins over the entire scalp for women. Herbal treatment for hair loss has existed throughout human history, but epidemiological studies, linking herbs effectiveness in treating hair loss have produced inconsistent results.
Androgenetic alopecia 
Androgenetic alopecia is a common hair loss in men and women. In men, it causes baldness patterns, receding at the forehead. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head, and the hairline does not recede.
1. Thujae occidentalis
Thujae occidentalis is an evergreen coniferous tree, belonging to the cypress family, native to the United States and the southeast of Canada. the herb has been used in folk medicine in treating warts, ringworm and thrush.
In HEK 293 cell line derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture, with expressing human 5alpha-reductase (type 2), Thujae occidentalis semen (TOS) extract in comparison with gamma-linolenic acid and finasteride (a synthetic drug used to be for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia), topically applied to fuzzy rat and androchronogenetic alopecia (AGA) mouse, showed  effectiveness in treating male pattern baldness by dictating androgen conversion with higher inhibition activity of 5alpha-reductase type 2 than that of gamma-linolenic acid, but lower than that of finasteride. These result indicated that the extract may be a potent agent for treating male baldness(1).

2. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb(Dodder)
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is a Perennial tree, belonging to the family Cuscutaceae, native to the Eastern Asia. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa, in the experiment used as a topical application, showed the Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity, exhibited hair growth-promoting activity, by blocking conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone which causes hair receded,(2).

3. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad
Citrullus colocynthis is a desert viny plant native to the Mediterranean Basin and Asia. The herb has been used in folk medicine for treatments of cancer, carcinoma, endothelioma, leukemia, corns, tumors, etc. In androgen-induced alopecia mice, the petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis showed an effectiveness in enhancing follicular density, exhibited hair growth-promoting activity in anagenic phase than the standard finasteride(3).

4. Eclipta alba(false daisy)
Eclipta alba is a species of E. prostrata , belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to India, China, Thailand, and Brazil. The herb has been used in folk medicine for treatments of com­bat­ing swelling, inflam­ma­tion, skin con­di­tions, etc.. Petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk in comparison with minoxidil 2% in rat study, exhibit hair growth pattern better than the positive control minoxidil 2% with significantly reduced time for complete hair growth.(4)

5. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc., Experiment of garlic gel in promoting hair growth showed a positive response in enhancing the application of topical betamethasone valerate(5).

6. Onion
The onion is a plants in the genus Allium, belongs to the family Alliaceae, a close relation of garlic. It It is often called the "king of vegetables" because of its pungent taste and found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent, mild or sweet. Topical crude onion juice in the study against hair loss, exhibited Re-growth of terminal coarse hairs after two weeks of application, in significantly higher among males compared to females, after 4 weeks(6).

7. Polygonum multiflorum
He Shou wu is also known as Chinese Knotweed, genus Fallopia, belonging to Polygonaceae, native to central and southern China. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in treating hyperlipemia, neurasthenia, split personality, premature white hair, nerve injuries, skin wind rash, constipation, etc.. Ethanol extract from Polygonum multiflorum roots in the experiment using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), showed to increase the proliferation of DPCs which plays an impotant role in enhancing hair growth and hair-fiber length significantly(7). In topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL6/N mice, the extract stimulated hair growth by inducing anagen phase and the number and the size of hair follicles(8).

8. Platycladus
Thuja orientalis is a  evergreen coniferous tree belonging to the  family Cupressaceae, native to northwestern China. The herbs has been used in traditional medicine in treating baldness and hair loss in East Asia. T. orientalis extract, in the experiment of topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, reduced earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles. These result indicated that Thuja orientalis may be beneficiary as a potential hair growth-promoting agent.(9).

9. Asiasari radix(Chinese wild ginger root)
Asiasari radix has been used in Asian traditionally medicine for treating hair loss in to stimulate hair growth. In female C57BL/6 and C3H mice, Topical application onto the backs of Asiasari radix extract showed an effectiveness in promoting  hair growth and increased  protein synthesis in vibrissae follicle cultures and the proliferation of both HaCaT and human DP cells in vitro.(10)

10. Sophora flavescens
Sophora flavescens is a species of  genus Sophora, belonging to family Fabaceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine for treatments of viral hepatitis, enteritis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage etc. In the experiment of topical application of Sophora flavescens extract in C57BL/6 mice, enhanced on hair growth may be mediated through the regulation of  growth factors in dermal papilla cells and inhibited the type II 5alpha-reductase activity(11).

11. Crinum asiaticum
Crinum asiaticum is a genus of Crimum, belonging to the family Amaryllidaceae, native to Jeju Island, Korea. The herb has been used in habal medicne for treatments of injury and inflamed joints, swellings, swollen joints, lumbago, pains and in cases of headache, fever, etc. Topical application of the EtOH extract of C. asiaticum onto the back of C57BL/6, increased the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells, cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the bulb region and the hair-fiber lengths of vibrissa(12). Norgalanthamine, a chemical constituent of Crinum asiaticum, also induced anagen progression of the hair shaft, increased the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells(16)

12. Ishige sinicola
Ishige sinicola is a genus of brown algae (class Phaeophyceae), belonging to the family Ishigeaceae native to native to Jeju Island, Korea. Topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice inhibit anagen progression of the hair shaft and activity of the activity of 5α-reductase, increased cell proliferation vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs), downregulated p27kip1 in stopping or slowing down the cell division cycle(13).

13. Acenthopanax koreanum
 Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae), a well-known herbal medicine in Jeju Island, Korea, has been used as a tonic agent in treating stress-related states(14). In the experiment of immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells treated with extract of A. koreanum leaves, showed an enhacement of the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, of the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles by  increasing the nuclear β-catenin level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E (regulating cell cycle progression) and CDK2(Cells decide at the end of mitosis to either start the next cell cycle and downregulation of the expression of p27(kip1)(Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) in the dermal papilla cells(15). 

14. Schisandra nigra
Schisandra nigra, a plant native to Jeju Island, South Korea. The herb has been used in traditional medicine for liver protection and treatments of  nervous, respiratory system. Topical application of the EtOH extract of S. nigra onto the back of C57BL/6 mice nigra, exhibited the increased hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles, induced anagen progression of the hair shaft and increased both the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the bulb matrix region and the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells(17).

The enhancement of herbal medicine for treatments of hair loss, linking to inhibit anagen progression of the hair shaft and activity of 5α-reductase, increase proliferation vibrissa dermal papilla cells with little or no side effects has produced a promising result. Somedays, they may be considered as approval prominent treatments, in  improving the appearance as well as quality of life by reducing the psychological stress with affordable cost. Once again, please consult you doctor or related field specialist before applying,

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References
(1) The extract of Thujae occidentalis semen inhibited 5alpha-reductase and androchronogenetic alopecia of B6CBAF1/j hybrid mouse by Park WS, Lee CH, Lee BG, Chang IS.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on androgen-induced alopecia by Pandit S, Chauhan NS, Dixit VK.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad fruits on testosterone-induced alopecia by Dhanotia R, Chauhan NS, Saraf DK, Dixit VK.(PubMed)
(4) Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats by Roy RK, Thakur M, Dixit VK.(PubMed)
(5) Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study by Hajheydari Z, Jamshidi M, Akbari J, Mohammadpour R.(PubMed)
(6) Onion juice (Allium cepa L.), a new topical treatment for alopecia areata by Sharquie KE, Al-Obaidi HK.(PubMed)
(7) Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth by Sun YN, Cui L, Li W, Yan XT, Yang SY, Kang JI, Kang HK, Kim YH.(PubMed)
(8) Topical application of Polygonum multiflorum extract induces hair growth of resting hair follicles through upregulating Shh and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice by Park HJ, Zhang N, Park DK.(PubMed)
(9) Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis by Zhang NN, Park DK, Park HJ.(PubMed)
(10) The hair growth promoting effect of Asiasari radix extract and its molecular regulation. ho SS, Park SJ, Hwang SL, Lee MH, Kim CD, Lee IH, Chang SY, Rang MJ.(PubMed)
(11) The hair growth promoting effect of Sophora flavescens extract and its molecular regulation by Roh SS, Kim CD, Lee MH, Hwang SL, Rang MJ, Yoon YK.(PubMed)
(12) Promotion effect of norgalanthamine, a component of Crinum asiaticum, on hair growth by Kim SC, Kang JI, Kim MK, Hyun JH, Boo HJ, Park DB, Lee YJ, Yoo ES, Kim YH, Kim YH, Kang HK.(PubMed).
(13) The promoting effect of Ishige sinicola on hair growth by Kang JI, Kim EJ, Kim MK, Jeon YJ, Kang SM, Koh YS, Yoo ES, Kang HK.(PubMed)
(14) The effects of a standardized Acanthopanax koreanum extract on stress-induced behavioral alterations in mice by Jung JM, Park SJ, Lee YW, Lee HE, Hong SI, Lew JH, Hong E, Shim JS, Cheong JH, Ryu JH.(PubMed)
(15)Promotion effect of acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, on hair growth by Kim SC, Kang JI, Park DB, Lee YK, Hyun JW, Koh YS, Yoo ES, Kim JA, Kim YH, Kang HK.(PubMed)
(16) Promotion effect of norgalanthamine, a component of Crinum asiaticum, on hair growth by Kim SC, Kang JI, Kim MK, Hyun JH, Boo HJ, Park DB, Lee YJ, Yoo ES, Kim YH, Kim YH, Kang HK.(PubMed)
(17) Promotion effect of Schisandra nigra on the growth of hair by Kang JI, Kim SC, Hyun JH, Kang JH, Park DB, Lee YJ, Yoo ES, Kang HK.(PubMed)

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