Saturday, March 1, 2014
Green Tea and Endometrial Cancer
Posted by Chantel Martiromo
The incidence of endometrial cancer among white women are higher in comparison to black. According to the statistic, the risk of endometrial cancer among women is 1 in 7000. Every year, about 40,000 women in US are diagnosed with the disease. Women who carry certain mutation genes, such as BRCA1 or the BRCA2 are associated to increased risk of endometrial cancer.
Depending to the stage and grade of the cancer, chemotherapy such as Doxorubicin, Cisplatin. Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, Topotecan may be necessary after surgery. Although epidemiological studies focusing the effective of vegetables and fruits in reduced risk and treatment of endometrial cancer with inconclusive results(1)(2)(3)(4), certain herbs, through clinical studies have found to be effective in reduced risk and treatment of endometrial cancer with little or no side effect.
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
Catechins. the major polyphenols in green tea, showed to reduce risk of endometrial cancer(7). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Another biological active component of green tea, also
inhibited endometrial cancer cell line (Ishikawa cells) proliferation, through cell cycle arrest, interfered with Akt(role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.) activation of MAPK(role in complex cellular programs like proliferation, differentiation, development, transformation, and apoptosis) signals, and increased apoptosis signals leading to a controlled caspases(mechanisms of apoptosis), Bcl-2(family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death), Bax(involved in p53-mediated apoptosis) genes and protein expression.(8). In a study of 152 patients with histopathologically diagnosed EEA(endometrial cancer), and 285 healthy women of the control who were matched for age and area of residence with individual cases, showed that green tea have an inverse association to endometrial cancer risk regardless of the presence or absence of factors such as obesity and menopause(9).
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(1) Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence BY Kim MK, Park JH(PubMed)
(2) Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk by Verhoeven DT, Goldbohm RA, van Poppel G, Verhagen H, van den Brandt PA(PubMed)
(3) Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms by van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA.(PubMed)
(4) Fruits and vegetables and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis by Bandera EV, Kushi LH, Moore DF, Gifkins DM, McCullough ML(PubMed)
(7) Green tea and green tea catechin extracts: an overview of the clinical evidence by Johnson R1, Bryant S, Huntley AL.(PubMed)
(8) Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Ishikawa cells is accompanied by sex steroid receptor downregulation by Park SB1, Bae JW, Kim JM, Lee SG, Han M(PubMed)
(9) Case-control study of green tea consumption and the risk of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma by Kakuta Y1, Nakaya N, Nagase S, Fujita M, Koizumi T, Okamura C, Niikura H, Ohmori K, Kuriyama S, Tase T, Ito K, Minami Y, Yaegashi N, Tsuji I(PubMed)