During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
The Causes of Endometriosis include1. Retrograde menstruation
The retrograde menstruation theory suggests that during menstruation the blood flows backward instead of outward causing menstrual blood to go through the fallopian tubes to the pelvic and abdominal cavity, resulting in blood embedding on the outside of the uterus into other tissues and organs causing endometriosis(18)(19).
2. Weakening of immune system
Normally, the immune will destroy endometrial cells which are located outside the uterus. If the immune system is weakened and no longer functions normally, it will allow the endometrial cells that shed to attach and grow elsewhere in the body(20)(21).
3. Stress and emotion
During stress and emotion, the adrenal glands produce cortisol which affects the function of the body to cleanse toxins resulting in stimulating the growth of endometriosis(22)(23)(24).
4. Embryonic theory
This theory suggests during the embryonic stage, some endometrial cells which normally grow in the womb instead develops in the abdomen(27).
5. Hormone imbalance
Endometriosis happens during reproductive years of women when estrogen and progesterone are most active. In each stage of the menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone must be balanced for women to conceive. Any imbalance of hormones during the menstrual cycle causes conversion of estrogen into bad estrogen and over-production of prostaglandin causing the cervix to contract resulting in no escaping of the menstrual period, causing menstrual cramps and endometriosis. Nutritional deficiency is also one of the causes of hormone imbalance(27)(28).
Endometriosis may be genetics passing through from generation to generation or it may result from genetic errors, causing some women to become more likely than others to develop the condition. Study shows that women are 5 times more likely to develop endometriosis if her sister has it. It is wise for these women to have children in their early reproductive years(29)(30).
7. Toxic environment
Study shows that exposing our body to toxins found in pesticides and some harmful waste products may have some hormonal and chemical influence causing activation of endometriosis at the time of menstrual cycle resulting in proliferating of endo-tissues to the abnormal area in our body(23)(25).
Interaction of our body with certain chemicals causes a disruption of the body's hormones as resulting of over-production of estrogen converting to xenoestrogen to stimulate the growth of endometriosis(31).
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(18) Retrograde menstruation in healthy women and in patients withendometriosis. by Halme J, Hammond MG, Hulka JF, Raj SG, Talbert LM.(PubMed)
(19) Endometriosis, retrograde menstruation and peritoneal inflammation in women and in baboons. by D'Hooghe TM1, Debrock S.(PubMed)
(20) Immune aspects of endometriosis: relevance of the uterine mucosalimmune system by Rier SE1, Yeaman GR.(PubMed)
(21) Pathogenesis by Witz CA1, Schenken RS.(PubMed)
(22) Serum markers of oxidative stress and endometriosis by Rosa e Silva JC, do Amara VF, Mendonça JL, Rosa e Silva AC, Nakao LS, Poli Neto OB, Ferriani RA.(PubMed)
(23)Stress Management Affects Outcomes in the Pathophysiology of anEndometriosis Model by Appleyard CB1, Cruz ML2, Hernández S2, Thompson KJ2, Bayona M3, Flores I4.(PubMed)
(24)Stress exacerbates endometriosis manifestations and inflammatory parameters in an animal model. by Cuevas M1, Flores I, Thompson KJ, Ramos-Ortolaza DL, Torres-Reveron A, Appleyard CB.(pubMed)
(25)The expression and role of oxidative stress markers in the serum and follicular fluid of patients with endometriosis.by Liu F1, He L, Liu Y, Shi Y, Du H.(PubMed)
(26)[Stasis-toxin theory for pathogenesis of endometriosis].[Article in Chinese] by Lian F.(PubMed)
(27) [Risk factors associated, diagnostic methods and treatment forendometriosis, used in clinical service endometriosis gynecology Hospital General de Mexico (2009-2011)].[Article in Spanish] by Guerrero Hernández A1, Oropeza Rechy G, Gómez García E. (PubMed)
(28)Pharmacologic management of endometriosis.by Saltiel E1, Garabedian-Ruffalo SM.(PubMed)
(29|)Endometriosis. IV. Hereditary tendency. by Ranney B.(PubMed)
(30) [Familial endometriosis, a hereditary condition?].[Article in Dutch] by van der VELDEN W.(PubMed)
(31)Urinary bisphenol-A concentration in infertile Japanese women and its association with endometriosis: A cross-sectional study.by Itoh H1, Iwasaki M, Hanaoka T, Sasaki H, Tanaka T, Tsugane S.(PubMed)