Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article by Kyle J. Norton
During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
The Effects on Abdominal and Pelvic Pain
1. Chronic pelvic pain
Normal chronic pelvic pain refers to any pain in your pelvic region (the area below your bellybutton and between your hips) lasting more than six months. In case of endometriosis at the final stage of the menstrual cycle period, endometrial tissue swells and bleeds, just like the lining of your uterus causing pain and scar tissue, and adhesion forming in your pelvic area resulting in the tissue and organ near the endometrosis being covered. Any movement of these constricted organs can cause severe pain(69)(70).
2. Locally pelvic pain
Some women experience locally pelvic pain beginning or/and during menstrual cycle caused by pre-menstrual syndrome as a result of over-production of prostaglandins increasing the contraction within the uterus lining. In case of endometriosis, the pain continues throughout menstruation, caused by inflammation of rupturing of endometrial cysts that attach to some pelvic regions as a result of over-production of certain hormones elevating the pain in that area(71)(72).
3. Lower pelvic pain
Normally lower pelvic pain is caused by infection of the bladder or inflammation of the collecting system of one or both kidneys, or dysmenorrhea. In case of endometrosis, the pain continues and becomes severe just before and during menstruation caused by scars and adhesion attached to the organs in the lower pelvic regions, such as the kidneys, bladder, and/or ovary(73)(74).
4. Severe abdominal cramps
Severe abdominal cramps before or during the menstrual cycle is likely caused by dysmenorrhea or premenstrual syndrome, if the pain is prolonged or just before, or during menstruation, then it may be caused by endometrial cells and rupturing of endometrial cysts resulting in over-production of prostaglandins in one area of the back, or travelling down the legs. If you experience back pain with continual dull abdominal pain just before and during menstruation it may caused by scar tissue or adhesion attached to the vertebra area(75)(76).
Remember any severe pain JUST BEFORE AND DURING menstruation in any region may be a good indication of endometriosis.
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(69) Ovarian Hormones and Chronic Pain: A Comprehensive Review by Hassan S1, Muere A2, Einstein G3.(PubMed)
(70) Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain by Zito G1, Luppi S2, Giolo E2, Martinelli M2, Venturin I1, Di Lorenzo G1, Ricci G3.(PubMed)
(71) Possible involvement of nerve growth factor in dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia associated with endometriosis by Kajitani T1, Maruyama T, Asada H, Uchida H, Oda H, Uchida S, Miyazaki K, Arase T, Ono M, Yoshimura Y.(PubMed)
(72)Mast cells in endometriosis: guilty or innocent bystandersÉ By Kirchhoff D1, Kaulfuss S, Fuhrmann U, Maurer M, Zollner TM.(PubMed)
(73)Urinary retention following laparoscopic gynaecological surgery with or without 4% icodextrin anti-adhesion solution by Nesbitt-Hawes EM1, Zhang CS, Won HR, Law K, Abbott JA.(PubMed)
(74) Fluid and pharmacological agents for adhesion prevention after gynaecological surgery by Ahmad G1, Mackie FL, Iles DA, O'Flynn H, Dias S, Metwally M, Watson A.(PubMed)
(75) Updating the clinical experience in endometriosis--the European perspective by Bromham DR1, Booker MW, Rose GL, Wardle PG, Newton JR.(PubMed)
(76) Ischemic colitis in a 33-year-old woman on danazol treatment for endometriosis by Miyata T1, Tamechika Y, Torisu M.(PubMed)