Fennel may have a potential and positive effect in reducing pain through its anti antispasmodic property, some scientists suggested.
Anti-antispasmodic activity is an action that relieves, prevents, or lowers the incidence of muscle spasms, especially those of adnominal muscle in the uterus and smooth muscle such as in the bowel wall.
Certain hormones which have the function in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation are found to associate with the intensity of muscle spasms, if overexpressed.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of the genus, belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean.
The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...
In the findings, the natural antispasmodic ingredients with little or no side effects, Dr. Shamkant B. Badgujar and colleagues launched an investigation to compare doses of 2.5 and 10.0 mL/L of alcoholic extract with other Germanic medicinal plants, including Melissa officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita,Matricaria chamomilla, Carum carvi, and Citrus aurantium.
The experiment was carried out on guinea pig ileum by using acetylcholine and histamine as spasmogens.
After taking into all account co and confounders account, researchers found that application tested doses of alcoholic extract of the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare exert a significant anti antispasmodic activity by inhibiting the acetylcholine and histamine-induced guinea pig ileal contractions.
Further analysis of the effects of n essential oil obtained from the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare at the doses of 25 μg/ and 10 μg/mL, researchers discovered that the injections also demonstrated the similar as of the extract but through the inhibition of hormone oxytocin and prostaglandin activities.
Oxytocin and prostaglandin are hormones with a function that causes contraction of the muscles of the uterus. Over contraction of muscles of the uterus is a major cause of the abdominal pain in women.
Additionally, the comparison of the antispasmodic property of 4 different herbal medicine that has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain in Swiss mice, including fennel according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also found that all herbs used in the testing display a substantial reduction of abdominal pain without inducing any adverse effects.
In the experiment carried out in the guinea pig, application of fennel also showed significant relaxation in different agonists like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum.
Interestingly, in the study to investigate whether oral fennel drop has any effects in primary dysmenorrhea, the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of the uterus, researchers conducted an experiment on sixty college students who suffer from primary dysmenorrhea.
The participants were randomly assigned to two groups and followed up for two cycles. The treatment group was given fennel drop and the control group was given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or oral contraceptive pills.
After assessing the final report, researchers suggested that both groups exert a clinic significant effect in reducing pain. However, comparison of bleeding severity in the study group before and after the intervention on the first day, second day, third day, fourth day, and fifth day was 0.948, 0.330, 0.508, 0.583, 0.890, respectively.
Dr. Bokaie M, the lead scientist said, "fennel can be effective in reducing the severity of dysmenorrhea, but it has an unpleasant taste in view of most of the volunteers".
Taken all together, fennel may be considered a secondary and therapeutical form of treatment in reducing pain caused by overexpression of hormones that control the muscles contraction through its antispasmodic activity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology by Shamkant B. Badgujar,* Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar(PMC)
(2) Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum by Kumar D1, Ganguly K1, Hegde HV1, Patil PA2, Kholkute SD1(PubMed)
(3) Oral fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) drop effect on primary dysmenorrhea: Effectiveness of herbal drug by Bokaie M1, Farajkhoda T, Enjezab B, Khoshbin A, Karimi-Zarchi M(PubMed)
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