Free radicals are the unstable and uncharged molecule which are highly reactive by having an unpaired valence electron.
Some researchers suggested that due to the nature of free radical high reactivity, free radicals have the potential to be the extremely harmful contaminants and extremely powerful chemical tools for the treatment of diseases through inducing cytotoxicity.
Free radicals exert their powerful reactivity through a chain reaction. Without inhibiting the unpaired electrons by antioxidants, the chain reaction can go on forever.
Radical chain reactions are processed in three distinct phases: initiation, propagation, and termination.
Contrastly, an antioxidant is a molecule with a function to inhibit oxidation, especially in the counteracting oxidative stress caused by overproduction of free radicals.
Researchers suggested that antioxidants found in the plant not only exerts the activity in the inhibition of free radicals but also stimulating the antioxidant enzymes in the host body.
Interestingly, in some cancer cells in vitro, application of antioxidants found in the plant such as green tea not only protect the healthy cells of the host but also increase the function of free radicals in killing cancer cell through cytotoxic activity.
One theory suggested if we can maintain a healthy ratio of antioxidants and free radicals in the body, we may live a life of diseases free.
Anise is a flowering plant of the species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belongings to the family Apiaceae native to Egypt and the Mediterranean region, used in traditional herbal medicine as a fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic,...
Anethole, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.
In the study of the effect of EtOAc soluble extract (PBet) isolated from Anise researchers found that at dose of PBet (0.5-2mg/mL), Anise extract demonstrates a protective effect of Bel-7404 cells from free radical Hydrogen peroxide H(2)O(2) and prevent free radical in inducing cell damage through scavenging of intracellular ROS.
Further analysis also suggested that bioactive compound such as β-sitosterol in the EtOAc soluble extract (PBet) improved the antioxidant status of the extract and stimulated the production of the host natural antioxidant profile in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
At a dose of 0,03 - 12g/kg BW, the extract expressed no acute toxic effect observed by the bone marrow polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test in determined the cytogenetic damage.
Dr. Lu J, the lead author, after taking into account other co-founders suggested that "PBet could be considered as a safe functional food with antioxidant activities".
Further evaluation of the expression of antioxidants in the inhibited free radical reactive activity in the development of degenerative diseases, researchers at the joint study led by the West Bengal State University, in compared antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively) indicated that anethole isolated from Anise displays a comparative antioxidant capacities in free radical scavenging activity against some ROS species.
Moreover, Anise spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, and at higher concentration, purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract.
The above illustration was supported by the study in the analysis of the antioxidant and protective effects of Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) against gentamicin (GM) in the induction of drug
In the total of 40 male Wistar rats divided into four groups: control and sham administrated normal saline orally and intraperitoneally (i.p.), gentamicin (GM) group received 100 mg/kg bw/day i.p., GM and ethanolic extract of P. anisum with oral dose of 300 mg/kg bw/day for 8 days, researchers suggested that application of Anise reduces kidney and liver toxicity and inhibits overexpression of reactive oxygen species in initiating chain reaction in oxidative stress the facilitation, and normalizes the levels of excretion of sodium and potassium induced by free radical expression, caused by injection of gentamicin (GM)
All inhibitions were observed through the expression of levels of creatinine, associate to kidney damage and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), an indication of liver toxicity and Malondialdehyde MDA, an oxidative stress marker and the absolute excretion of sodium and potassium.
Interestingly, compared to the control, application of Anise at 300 mg/kg bw/day significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of renal function markers (serum creatinine) in the group receiving GM (P < 0.05) and protected them against GM in inducing tubule damage.
Dr. Changizi-Ashtiyani S, the lead author suggested that "potential therapeutic impact of P. anisum to attenuate GM-induced nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the simultaneous use of the ethanolic extract of P. anisum during GM administration is recommended to reduce its nephrotoxicity effects".
Taken all together, the findings suggested that Anise may be considered a functional herb in the improved antioxidant status against ROS and drug-induced toxicity through its bioactive compounds by stimulating the production of natural antioxidants in the host.
However, intake of Anise extract in high concentration should be taken with exceptional care as liver acute toxicity has been reported by some medical literature.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Phytochemical composition and toxicity of an antioxidant extract from Pimpinellabrachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai by Lu J1, Qian W2, Xu L2, Huang G2, Cong W2, Wang Z2, Deng X3, Wang D3, Guan S4.(PubMed)
(2) Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices by Patra K1, Jana S1, Mandal DP1, Bhattacharjee S1.(PubMed)
(3) Pimpinella anisum L. ethanolic extract ameliorates the gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity in rats by Changizi-Ashtiyani S1, Seddigh A2, Najafi H3, Hossaini N4, Avan A5, Akbary A6, Manian M7, Nedaeinia R8. (PubMed)