Fennel may process a strong anti-inflammatory activity in reducing the risk of tissue injury and cell apoptosis, some scientists suggested.
Acute inflammation is a natural and systematic immune response to protect our body against invasion of foreign bacteria and virus by the initiated production of inflammatory cytokines to the site of infection.
However, overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines initiated by the immune system for a prolonged period of time may lead to cells damage and sometimes death of the healthy cells in the infectious site and nearby cells.
These complications can also cause improper healing for the forming of scars and damage to the tissue of the organ, affecting and limiting the organs functioning, such as liver scars caused by hepatitis virus infection.
Badly enough, some proteins process the duo functions of pro and anti-inflammation. Under abnormal conditions, they can switch from their original action of anti-inflammatory cytokines to pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Furthermore, chronic inflammation occurred that lasts for months or years when the immune system response to the site of infection failure to eliminate agents that cause acute inflammation.
An autoimmune disorder that attacks normal healthy tissue, mistaking them for pathogens that can also cause chronic inflammatory disease.
Most cases of inflammation, are treated with NSAID's, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, in some people intake of these medications can cause common and serious side effects, including gastrointestinal issues, such as pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, nausea, and stomach ulcers, kidney problems, anemia,.... and swelling in the leg.
If you are presently taking anti-inflammatory medicine, please make sure that you discuss the adverse effects with your doctor.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species, belongings to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean.
The herbal medicine has been used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...
According to study of BALB/C mice were intraperitoneally administered anethole (62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg) 1 h before intratracheal treatment with LPS (1.5 mg/kg) and sacrificed after 4 h, researchers found that in anethole treatment group exerts a significant increase of numbers of mobile white blood cells macrophages and neutrophils, the first immune response to the infectious site.
Furthermore, application of LPS also induced production of inflammatory mediators such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) all systematic inflammatory cytokines in response to cellular damage and tissue injury.
Moreover, LPS also exhibited overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in facilitated cellular cytotoxicity.
In the compared nontreatment group, injection anethole group demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect through decrease activities of proinflammatory factors without affecting the immune activity in protects against infection.
Additional analysis also found that treatment group reduced acute lung injury caused by injection LPS through its antioxidants and induced production of host natural antioxidant in the body tissue.
The inhibited LPS results according to were attributed to anethole effect in suppressed the activation of NF-κB in signaling production of inflammatory cytokines by blocking the initiation of IκB-α degradation by inhibited TRAF2 in the induction of inflammation through TNF receptor superfamily members and NIK, a key signaling molecule of the noncanonical NF-κB.
Interestingly, further investigation of anethole as an inhibitor of TNF-induced NF-kB activation (an early response) as monitored by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, by suppression of IkBa phosphorylation and NF-kB reporter gene, researchers also indicated that
* Anethole also suppressed TNF-induced activation of the transcription factor AP-1 in regulated gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including LPS application.
*c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) with function in response to stress stimuli, such as cytokines,
* MAPKkinase in signal inflammatory response through transmitting information from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
* Application of anethole also suppressed TNF-induced both lipid peroxidation and ROS generation, through the stimulated production of natural antioxidant in the host and itself, resulting in balancing the ratio of antioxidant and ROS expression.
The illustration and differentiation were elite by the experiment in the application of TNF (100 pM) with the cells pretreated for 240 and 120 min with anethole, NF-kB activation was almost completely inhibited.
However, the inhibition decreased gradually with decreased pre-incubation time.
Taken together, fennel and its bioactive anethole may be considered as a functional food in reduced risk and treatment in acute and chronic inflammatory related-diseases through the properties like a pro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
by PurumKanga1Ka YoungKima1Hui SuLeea1Sun SeekMinbGeun HeeSeol(PubMed)
(2) Anethole blocks both early and late cellular responses transduced by tumor necrosis factor: e€ffect on NF-kB, AP-1, JNK, MAPKK and apoptosis by Gagan BN Chainy1,2, Sunil K Manna1,2, Madan M Chaturvedi1 and Bharat B Aggarwal by Oncogene (2000) 19, 2943 ± 2950 ã 2000 Macmillan Publishers Ltd All rights reserved 0950 ± 9232/00 $15.00
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