Arnica may have a profound and therapeutic effect in reducing the risk of diseases associated with overexpression oxidative stress, some scientist suggested.
The expression of oxidative stress is a medical condition characterized by the imbalance of the ratio of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes produced by the host tissue.
In some cases, this reaction also is caused long-term accumulation of toxic substances in the body, such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic.
Dr. Ercal N, the lead author in the study of the relation of toxic metals and oxidative stress, wrote, "antioxidants may play an important role in abating some hazards of heavy metals. In order to prove the importance of using antioxidants in heavy metal poisoning, pertinent biochemical mechanisms for metal-induced oxidative stress".
There is no single cause of oxidative stress. Some researchers suggested that numbers of factors can facilitate the onset of oxidative stress, including cigarette smoke, oxidative burst from activated macrophages, particularly, the free radicals chain reaction.
Sadly, a prolonged period of oxidative stress presented in the human body can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, (lipids, proteins, DNA) and death of healthy cells through cytotoxicity.
Certain chronic diseases are found to be associated with oxidative stress, including atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation, and stroke.
By changing diet and lifestyle, oxidative stress can be managed or avoided, Dr. Seungyoun Jung, the lead author in the study of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress suggested, "Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases" and "Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400".
Where fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP) is a global marker of oxidative stress
Arnica is a herbaceous species, genus perennial, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and Asia.
The Herbal medicine used in herbal medicine for centuries to treat strains, sprains, and bruises.
Helenalin, chamissonolid, Sesquiterpene lactone, lignans of the furofuran, dibenzylbutyrolactone, dibenzylbutyrolactol types, pinoresinol, epipinoresinol, phillygenin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin, and nortracheloside, six dibenzylbutyrolactol derivatives.
In the analysis of the effect of Arnica Arnica on mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by Ca(2+) plus inorganic phosphate and/or Fe(2+)-citrate-mediated lipid peroxidation through changes in oxygen consumption rates in adult male Wistar rat, researchers found that application of Arnica at dose of 6cH, 12cH, 30cH or succussed 30% ethanol (control) for 21 days, exert a strong activity in reduced expression of lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial membranes through inhibiting the antimycin-A, a toxic chemical with function in initiated production of free radicals.
Under oxidative stress conditions caused by injection of Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate, tested group with a dose of Arnica 30cH demonstrated the effect in decreasing mitochondrial O(2), an indication of lesser expression of free radicals presented in the mitochondrion, through the herbal antioxidant activity.
In liver tissues, administration of Anise at dose 30cH in the tested group also protected the hepatic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by inhibited ROS on the induction of lipid peroxidation and precipitated fragmentation of proteins.
Further evaluation of the study showed that these results of free radical inhibitory effect were attributed to levels of antioxidant from the herb and the herb in the stimulated production of antioxidants of the tested host.
Additionally, in the investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of A. Montana flower methanol extract (AMME) against both inflammation and oxidative stress in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model, scientists suggested that oral administration of AMME reduces clinical signs and improves the histological and radiological status of the hind limb joints, through reducing overexpression of levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12) and titer of anti-type II collagen antibody activated by high levels of oxidative stress.
This inhibitory effect of AMME against overproduction inflammatory factors not only reverses the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage but also inhibits the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in facilitated cell damage and healthy cell death at the site of infection.
Moreover, according to the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, the function of Arnica in the alleviation of arthritis by ameliorating ROS expression was attributed to the combined action of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
Dr. Sharma S, the lead author said, " The study also shed some light on mechanisms involved in the diminution of inflammatory mediators and free radical-generating toxicants and enhancement of the antioxidant armory, thereby preventing further tissue damage, injury and synovial hyperproliferation in arthritis".
The above differentiation was supported by the National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences study of A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line.
According to the final assessment, researchers suggested that both A. absinthium and A. montana extract showed a strong antioxidant capacity but lesser in A. montana, compared to A. absinthium.
At the doses of the range of 10-100 mg/L and A. montana and 10-500 mg/L A. absinthium, both extracts exhibited a significant oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity and protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, depending on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids contents presented in the extracts.
According to the neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays, pretreatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10-300 mg/L A. absinthium was considered the best protection against the early onset of ROS production in H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line.
Importantly, pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts also restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle through inhibiting oxidative stress in the induction of cytotoxicity.
Taken together, Arnica and its bioactive chemical may be considered a functional food in reduced inflammatory-related diseases caused by overexpression of oxidative stress. However, intake of Arnica supplement should be taken with extreme care for the prevention of acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Effect of the oral administration homeopathic Arnica montana on mitochondrial oxidative stress by de Camargo RA1, da Costa ED, Catisti R.(PubMed)
(2) Cumulative therapeutic effects of phytochemicals in Arnica montana flower extract alleviated collagen-induced arthritis: inhibition of both pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress by Sharma S1, Arif M1, Nirala RK1, Gupta R2, Thakur SC(PubMed)
(3) Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts by Craciunescu O1, Constantin D, Gaspar A, Toma L, Utoiu E, Moldovan L.(PubMed)
(4) Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage by Ercal N1, Gurer-Orhan H, Aykin-Burns N.(PubMed)
(5) Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study by Seungyoun Jung,1,2,3,* Stephanie A. Smith-Warner,1,2 Walter C. Willett,1,2,4 Molin Wang,2Tianying Wu,5 Majken Jensen,2,4 Susan E. Hankinson,4,6 and A. Heather Eliassen. (PMC)
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