Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area caused by abnormal cells growth with alternation of cells DNA. According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of 4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).
Depending to the stage and grade of the cancer, if the cancer is found in the early stahe, hysterectomy may not be needed. Other while after sugery, chemotherapy including Cisplatin, Fluorouracil (5-FU), Mitomycin, Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Bevacizumab and radiotherapy may be necesary, but with certain side effects. Emerging suggestion of a healthy and balanced diet to improve high serum levels of antioxidants may reduce cervical neoplasia risk(b)(c) but other suggested that the role of diet and nutrition in the etiology of cervical cancer is not yet resolved(d) and Catalan Institute of Oncology study showed statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC)(e).
Cactus pear also known as Prickly pear is a genus Opuntia, belonging to the family Cactaceae, native to Mexico.
Cactus pear extracts, in the study of immortalized ovarian and ovarian cancer cells (OVCA420, SKOV3), exhibited anti proliferative effect through a dramatic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced DNA fragmentation, together with a perturbed expression of apoptotic-related (Bax, Bad, caspase 3, Bcl2, p53, and p21) and ROS-sensitive (NF-kappaB, c-jun/c-fos) genes(25). Other study from the University of Arizona, indicated that aqueous extracts of cactus pear significantly increased in apoptosis and growth inhibition in both immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through cell cycle arrest(26).
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(a) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(b) Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women by Tomita LY1, Longatto Filho A, Costa MC, Andreoli MA, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; Brazilian Investigation into Nutrition and Cervical Cancer Prevention (BRINCA) Study Team.(PubMed)
(c) Associations of dietary dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables and fruits with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: modification by smoking by Tomita LY1, Roteli-Martins CM, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; BRINCA Study Team.(PubMed)
(d) Diet and the risk of in situ cervical cancer among white women in the United States by Ziegler RG1, Jones CJ, Brinton LA, Norman SA, Mallin K, Levine RS, Lehman HF, Hamman RF, Trumble AC, Rosenthal JF, et al.(PubMed)
(e) Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study by González CA1, Travier N, Luján-Barroso L, Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Roura E, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Palli D, Boeing H, Pala V, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Manjer J, Dillner J, Hallmans G, Kjellberg L, Sanchez MJ, Altzibar JM, Barricarte A, Navarro C, Rodriguez L, Allen N, Key TJ, Kaaks R, Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Munk C, Kjaer SK, Peeters PH, van Duijnhoven FJ, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Naska A, Lund E, Engeset D, Skeie G, Franceschi S, Slimani N, Rinaldi S, Riboli E.(PubMed)
(25) Cactus pear extracts induce reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by Feugang JM1, Ye F, Zhang DY, Yu Y, Zhong M, Zhang S, Zou C.(PubMed)(26) Cactus pear: a natural product in cancer chemoprevention by Zou DM1, Brewer M, Garcia F, Feugang JM, Wang J, Zang R, Liu H, Zou C.(PubMed)