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Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.
1. Hormone imbalance
For what ever reason, women with PMS are found to have high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It may be caused unbalance of omega fatty acid, deficiency of certain minerals and vitamins, digestive disorder in nutrients absorption, etc, resulting in increasing symptoms of anxiety of PMS.
2. Sluggish liver
Besides helping to detoxify the body and fighting against invasion of foreign substances such as virus, bacteria and abnormal cell growth, liver play an important role in providing nutrients to the nervous system in fat and protein metabolism. Unfortunately, most women with PMS are found to have a sluggish liver during menstrual cycle resulting in nervous tension leading to anxiety.
3. Nutrients deficiency
Deficiency of Omega 3 fatty acid or imbalance of fatty acid in the body during menstrual cycle as resulting of over consumption of saturated fat caused by interference of liver in fat and protein metabolism resulting in increasing tension of nervous system leading to anxiety.
4. Genetic passing through
If your sister has it, you may also have it. For what ever reason, anxiety during menstrual cycle seems to run in the family. It may be caused by high levels of estrogen in the pool gene or reaction of certain glands in production of hormone during menstrual cycle.
5. Environment toxins
Over exposure to toxic environment resulting in accumulation of xenoestrogen in the body during menstrual will lead to over production of bad estrogen and low levels of good estrogen to counter the reaction to the symptoms of PMS.
B. Food Craving
1. Sluggish liver
Maintaining a strong liver is vital for women with PMS, because liver helps in synthesis of carbohydrate and regulating the levels of insulin in the blood stream by transmitting information to pancreas. If the levels of insulin is too high, it tell pancreas to stop producing insulin and if the levels is too low, it tell pancreas to secret more insulin. Unbalancing blood sugar in the blood stream causes Foods and sugar craving.
2. Hormone imbalance
a) Adrenal gland
Women with PMS are found to have high levels of adrenaline which causes less production of progesterone leading to hormone imbalance and resulting in increasing the appetite of sweet and sugar products.
b) Hormone fluctuation
Hormone fluctuation and hormone deficiency, such as over production estrogen and little progesterone or over production of progesterone and less estrogen will increase the tension of nervous system resulting in stress and food craving.
3. Iron and Vitamins B6 deficiency
Some women with PMS during menstrual cycle are found to have low levels of iron and vitamin B6 resulting in increasing the risk of craving for for food not normally eaten and chocolate.
4. High levels of glucose tolerance
For what ever reason, women with PMS are found to have high levels of glucose tolerance such as increased appetite and craving for sugar and chocolate. It may be caused by stress and high levels of adrenaline. Some researchers argue that under stress, most women look for anything which can make them feel comfortable including sweet and chocolate.
5. Omega 3 fatty acid deficiency
Omega 3 fatty acid helps not only to regulate uterus muscle during menstrual cycle, but also helps to balance the levels of prostaglandins hormone resulting in lessening the risk of food and craving for women with PMS
1. Lymphatic malfunction
Lymphatic system is important for returning excess interstitial fluid to the blood. Some women with PMS with water retention symptom, it may be caused by lymphatic malfunction leading to over returning of interstitial fluid surrounds the tissue cells resulting in water retention in the body tissues.
2. Over production of prolactin
Prolactin is vital for milk production for feeding mother, over production of prolactin by pituitary gland during menstrual cycle as resulting of hormone imbalance causing breast tenderness for some women with PMS.
3. Digestive system
For what ever reason, women with PMS are found to have digestive disorder. It may be caused by lacking stomach acid in the digestive system resulting in reducing the absorption of certain nutrient which are necessary to maintain right levels of fluid in the body tissues.
4. Potassium deficiency
Potassium is vital for sodium regulation. Without enough levels of potassium, it causes high levels of sodium accumulated in the body resulting in increasing the risk of fluids retention.
Serotonin besides plays an important role in neurotransmitter, it also helps to calm the nervous tension with right levels, but over production of serotonin causes nervous tension and water retention.
Beside helps to regulate the uterus muscle, over production of prostaglandins hormones increase the risk of pre menstrual cramps and water retention.
Aldosterone produced by adrenal gland, besides helping the kidney in regulating water retention in the body tissues by releasing potassium in the kidney, it also acts on the nervous system in controlling anxiety, fear and stress. Women with pre menstrual syndrome are found to have high levels of aldsterone resulting in increasing emotional and physical stress.
Glucocorticoids is also produced by adrenal gland, besides helping liver in regulating the glucose metabolism and immune system in fighting against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus, it also have an negative effect on central nervous system. Over production of glucocorticoids cause stress.
Women with pre menstrual syndrome are found to have high levels of cortisol, it is either caused by inability to cope with daily stress, hormone imbalance or nutrients deficiency before menstruation.
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system. Unbalancing of levels of serotonin before menstruation causes nervous tension, water retention, anger, aggression and lost of concentration and stress.
Androgen is a steroid hormone, it helps to stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine in the body. Unbalancing of androgen can influence our behaviour, such as emotional and physical stress, because our nervous system is sensitive to steroid hormones.
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