Celery may have a profound and positive effect on the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, some scientists found.
Inflammation is a natural reaction to a systematic immune response which protects our body against the stimuli or invasive pathogens.
Acute inflammation is a result of the immune white blood cell response to tissue damage or injury by stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines with an aim to kill off the microorganism which tries to enter the body through the wound.
Chronic inflammation is a condition of low-grade inflammation adopted by the immunity caused by the immune inability to kill off all invaders in the acute phase of infection.
Some researchers in the examine the immune evolution over thousands of year suggested that the immune system has evolved to destroy the foreigner pathogens after entering in specific time within 3 -8 weeks, otherwise, it will adapt to the change.
Chronic inflammation also is an autoimmune disease caused by the immune system mistakenly attacks the bodily tissue.
Epidemiological studies suggested that aging that causes low production of sex hormone, being obese and obese, and smoking are associated with the early onset of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Some researchers suggested that out of a number of risk factors, a poor diet in long-term is one of the major cause of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Dr. Anne M. Minihane, the lead author in the examine the risk of low-grade inflammation in diet composition and health said, " the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much-needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims".
The statement clearly suggested that people who follow a healthy diet pattern with high fruits and vegetables and whole grain and low saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed food are less likely to be infected by chronic inflammatory diseases.
Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belong to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable. Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.
With an aim to find a natural whole food for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory disease, researchers looked into the group of flavones that have reported anti-inflammatory activities, and examined the ability of flavone-rich foods to reduce inflammation.
Celery extracts, with the anti-inflammatory activities and rich in flavone aglycones, was selected for the study.
Celery diets with different glycoside or aglycone contents were formulated and absorption was evaluated in mice fed with 5 or 10% celery diets.
Intake of deglycosylation was found to increase the absorption of dietary flavones in vivo and modulates inflammation by reducing TNF-α, the proinflammatory cytokines and NF-κB, which regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses.
The results suggested that celery extract rich in flavones may have the potential for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases.
Additional differentiation of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity in-vitro and in-vivo of the compound flavonoids found abundantly in celery, researchers launched an evaluation to examine the effects of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of the leaves of Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery) on iNOS expression and NO production in a tested macrophage cell line stimulated for 24 h with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Where the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the direct consequences of the inflammatory process and overproduction of NO is considered a pro-inflammatory mediator that induces inflammation.
In vitro, treatment of the extract and apiin showed significant inhibitory activity on nitrite (NO) production and iNOS expression observed by the tested cell line assay.
Interestingly, the extract exerted anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 microg cm(-2)), with a potency seven-times lower than those of indomethacin (ID50 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as references.
The finding clearly suggested the inhibitory activity of the extract and apiin in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production.
Taken altogether, celery may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases without inducing any side effects, pending to the validation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Flavone deglycosylation increases their anti-inflammatory activity and absorption by Hostetler G1, Riedl K, Cardenas H, Diosa-Toro M, Arango D, Schwartz S, Doseff AI. (PubMed)
(2) An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties by Mencherini T1, Cau A, Bianco G, Della Loggia R, Aquino RP, Autore G.(PubMed).
(3) Combination anti-inflammatory therapy: synergism in rats of NSAIDs/corticosteroids with some herbal/animal products by Whitehouse MW1, Butters DE. (PubMed)
(4) Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation by Anne M. Minihane, 1 ,* Sophie Vinoy, 2 Wendy R. Russell, 3 Athanasia Baka, 4 Helen M. Roche,5 Kieran M. Tuohy, 6 Jessica L. Teeling, 7 Ellen E. Blaak, 8 Michael Fenech, 9 David Vauzour, 1Harry J. McArdle, 3 Bas H. A. Kremer, 10 Luc Sterkman, 11 Katerina Vafeiadou, 12Massimo Massi Benedetti, 13 Christine M. Williams, 14 and Philip C. Calder. (PMC)
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