Phytochemical piperine may be the next therapeutic ingredient for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment, some scientists suggested.
Cognition is the process of the brain including the attention of working memory, producing and comprehending language, learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and decision making.
Cognitive impairment is the condition, affecting a person's thinking, communication, understanding or memory. Cognitive impairment can be acute or chronic.
Acute cognitive impairment is a short-term health problem caused by delirium, an acutely disturbed state of mind due to drugs (toxicity and withdrawal), electrolyte disturbance, lack of drugs, liver disease, infection, reduced sensory input, intracranial urinary retention/fecal impaction or m Myocardial/metabolic/pulmonary.
Chronic cognitive impairment is a permanent medical condition associated with problems of language, ideomotor and constructive praxis, visual gnosis, spatial attention, learning abilities, and executive functions.
There is no single cause of cognitive impairment. Some researchers suggested that depending on the locations of the brain that were affected, patients may be at risk of Alzheimer's disease if the brain change is caused by the abnormal clumps of beta-amyloid protein (plaques) and microscopic protein clumps of tau, Lewy bodies, if the change is a result of microscopic clumps of another protein associated with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and some cases of Alzheimer's disease.
Small strokes or reduced blood flow through brain blood vessels can also cause chronic cognitive impairment.
According to the observation of the patient MRI, patients brain with cognitive impairment also showed shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory, enlargement of the brain's fluid-filled spaces (ventricles) and reduced use of glucose, the sugar that's the primary source of energy for cells.
Risk factors associated with the onset of chronic cognitive impairment include the increase in age, genetic preposition, certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, high blood cholesterol, and pressure, being obese and lack of exercise.
According to the joint study led by the Health Innovations Research Institute, obesity is also one of the major risk factors of cognitive impairment in the Western world.
Dr. Jason C. D. Nguyen, the lead author in the team wrote in the final report, "The incidence of obesity in middle age is increasing markedly, and in parallel, the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes is also rising. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both obesity and metabolic disorders are associated with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia".
Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.
On finding natural ingredients for the prevention of cognitive impairment caused by oxidative damage in the brain neurons, researchers at the University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences examine the cognition protective effects of piperine co-administration with curcumin.
Cognitive impairment and oxidative stress mice induced by chronic stress (CS) were selected to the study.
Before administration of piperine + curcumin, chronic stress mice showed a significantly impaired memory performance (delayed latency time to reach the platform) and decreased locomotor activity along with sucrose consumption.
Furthermore, without infection of piperine + curcumin, the tested mice also demonstrated a significant impairment in oxidative parameters observed by the elevated malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration and decreased reduced glutathione, catalase levels) and reduced hydrolytic metabolism in transmitting information between neurons.
Application of piperine + curcumin restored all parameters induced by chronic stress, including the normalized the cognitive function, improved the antioxidant status against overexpression of free radicals.
Most importantly, co-administration of piperine (20mg/kg; p.o.) with curcumin (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) significantly elevated the cognitive protective effect compared to individual use.
Dr. Rinwa P, the lead scientist said in the final report, "piperine enhanced the bioavailability of curcumin and potentiated its protective effects against CUS induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage in mice".
In order to reconfirm the co-administration of piperine with curcumin the neuroprotective effects, researchers elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression in rats.
Before injecting piperine + curcumin, tested rat showed depression-like symptoms as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, hyperactivity in open field arena, and anhedonic like response in SPT along with alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complexes, increased serum corticosterone levels and oxidative damage similar to those of the previous study.
The overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteins associated with the neuron apoptosis and oxidative stress in tested rat caused by olfactory bulbectomy were also inhibited by the co-administration of piperine with curcumin.
The in-depth analysis suggested that the combination of piperine plus curcumin treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored all behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations associated with OBX induced depression.
Dr. Rinwa P said, "curcumin along with piperine exhibits neuroprotection against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression possibly by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress-induced neuroinflammation and apoptosis".
Taken altogether, the discovery strongly supports the use of piperine and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment, pending to the reconfirmation of larger sample size and multicenter possibility.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) iperine potentiates the protective effects of curcumin against chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in mice by Rinwa P, Kumar A.(PubMed)
(2) Suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascade by curcumin alone and in combination with piperine in rat model of olfactory bulbectomy induced depression by Rinwa P, Kumar A, Garg S.(PubMed)
(3) Protective effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine(bioavailability enhancer) against haloperidol-associated neurotoxicity: cellular and neurochemical evidence by Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Rongzhu L, Kulkarni SK.(PubMed)
(4) Obesity and cognitive decline: role of inflammation and vascular changes by Jason C. D. Nguyen,1 A. Simon Killcross,2 and Trisha A. Jenkins. (PMC)
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