Oral cancer also known as mouth cancer is a medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the tissue of the oral cavity, due to the alternation of cell DNA.
Most cases of oral cancer begin in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of oral tissue.
However, at the advanced stage, oral cancer cells can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organs, leading to the secondary metastasis.
According to the statistic provided by the American Cancer Society, in 2018, approximately 51,540 people were diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer. The disease causes the death of an estimated 10,030 people.
The 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is 66%, including all stages.
Family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, infected by HPV virus, poor hygiene and genetic preposition are some of the risk factors associated with the disease.
Some researchers suggested that oral sex may be one of the major prevalent risk factors involved in the development of oral cancer. Dr. Rajiv Saini in the examination of the connection of oral sex and oral cancer, wrote, "The diverse conduit in the oral cavity that provides as a gateway of exposure of infection from the oral cavity to bloodstream include any open sores, cuts, abrasions, or bleeding gum disease such as gingivitis and periodontitis".
"Accumulating molecular and pathologic evidence has strengthened the hypothesis that HPV infection could play a role in the etiology of some oral squamous cell carcinomas.
And, "To reduce the risk of infection during unprotected oral sex, limit exposure to sexual fluids and ensure that no cuts or lesions are present in the mouth or on the genitals. Good oral health, free from bleeding gums, lip sores, cuts, broken skin, and oral epithelium, enormously reduces the chances of transmission of infection among the partners indulging in oral sex".
These results strongly suggested people who perform oral sex before, during and after sexual intercourse may be at risk of oral cancer due to infected by the HPV virus.
Researchers on finding a natural compound for the inhibition of oral cancer examined the -Shogaol (-SHO), a major constituent of ginger anti-tumor activity.
-SHO showed a significant effect in preventing oral squamous cell carcinoma by activating proapoptotic factors in vitro and in vivo experimental model.
In the inflammation and cell proliferation assays, injection of -SHO inhibited the oral cancer cell line through cytotoxicity induced by the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, proteins associated with cell apoptosis and anti-cell survival mechanisms.
Furthermore, in the oral cancer cells, oral administration of -SHO strongly inhibited phosphorylation in stimulating the enzymes which carry energy the cancer cells and enzymes in the degradation of cellular response to inflammation.
Dr. Annamalai G, the lead scientist said, " -SHO is a novel functional agent capable of preventing DMBA induced inflammation and cell proliferation associated tumorigenesis by modulating multiple signaling molecules".
Additionally, in order to reveal more information about 6-Gingerol anti-oral cancer properties, researchers investigated the compound in human oral (SCC4, KB) with or without wortmannin, rapamycin, and cisplatin.
6-Gingerol showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the oral cell line.
Combinations of 6-gingerol with wortmannin and cisplatin showed additive effects, while with rapamycin, it showed 50% cytotoxicity equivalent to that of IC50 of 6-gingerol alone.
Treatment with 6-gingerol exhibited S-phase arrest in SCC4 cells. But 6-Gingerol, wortmannin, and rapamycin treatment showed almost two-fold higher expression of proteins associated with cancer cells apoptosis.
Dr. in the final report wrote," 6-gingerol appears to be a safe and potent chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive compound acting through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human oral....cells".
Taken altogether, ginger processed bioactive ingredient 6-gingerol and -Shogaol may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and combined with primary medicine for the treatment of oral cancer, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) -Shogaol attenuates inflammation, cell proliferation via modulate NF-κB and AP-1 oncogenic signaling in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis by Annamalai G1, Suresh K. (PubMed)
(2) 6-Gingerol Mediates its Anti Tumor Activities in Human Oral and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Kapoor V1, Aggarwal S1, Das SN. (PubMed)
(3) Oral sex and oral cancer: A virus link by Rajiv Saini. (PMC)
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