Bacteria is a single cell microorganism. Most bacterias are not harmful, some may also benefit the digestive system. However, 1% of invasive bacteria can make us sick and damage the body tissue, such as bacteria associated with tuberculosis.
There are many ways to cause infection including bacteria passed from person to person, transmitted by bites from insects or animals. and ingesting contaminated food or water.
Most common symptoms of infectious diseases are fever, diarrhea, fatigue, muscle aches, coughing, depending on the specific area of infection.
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises the body's defense system against diseases.
Most bacteria are killed in the first phase of acute infection. In this phase, the immune white blood cells in the first line of defense in responding to the body tissue damage or injury by stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines to kill off all invasive pathogens on the site of damage.
However, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in most cases can destroy the nearby healthy cells, leading to the formation of scars as seen in liver infection.
What contributes to the overexpression proinflammatory and underexpression of anti-inflammatory cytokines of the body in the initiation of chronic inflammatory diseases?
Dr. Thomas W. McDade and colleagues in the investigation of the role of proinflammatory cytokines in risk of infection explained, "the metabolic syndrome may be characterized by dysregulated inflammation, in which an important anti-inflammatory signal is absent. Similarly, in a prospective study of patients with acute coronary syndromes, baseline IL-10 concentration was a significant predictor of death or myocardial infarction during 6 months of follow up, ......high IL-10 experienced an adverse outcome, compared to 21.8% of patients with high CRP but low IL-10
Burdock is a plant in the group of biennial thistles, genus Arctium, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to the Euro.
The plant has been used thousands of years in China medicine as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and a blood purifying agent and to treat wounds and infections stomach ulcers and other digestive problems.
With an aim to the discovery of natural biocomponents from plants with antibacterial activity on endodontic microbiota for the new therapies, researchers evaluated the antibacterial activity of a phytotherapeutic agent prepared from an ethyl acetate fraction (AcOEt) extracted from Arctium lappa.
A total of 27 maxillary canines with a mixed bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans a Candida albicans were included in the study.
The teeth were divided into three groups and their canals filled with: group 1, calcium hydroxide and propylene glycol; group 2, a paste containing AcOEt fraction of A. lappa (Burdock) and propylene glycol; group 3, propylene glycol (control).
At 7, 14 and 30 days, three teeth from each group opened, researchers found that mild bacterial growth was found in group 1 at all time intervals; in group 2 there was severe growth at 7 days, but no growth at 14 and 30 days.
These results indicated a significant antibacterial effect of AcOEt fraction of A. lappa in inhibiting the growth of all the microorganisms.
Furthermore, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of rough extracts from leaves of Arctium lappa showed inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans selectively to specific target microorganisms.
In other words, each constituent in the extract of Burdock inhibited only a certain type of endodontic pathogens without affecting others.
Dr.Pereira JV, the lead author said, "the Arctium lappa constituents exhibited a great microbial inhibition potential against the tested endodontic pathogens".
More importantly, in the review of the antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts of extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants, researchers found that only 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity.
Arctium lappa exerted some degree of antibacterial activity compared to other plants, including Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina species.
Burdock was one of 5 plants belonging to the Asteraceae family demonstrated the Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram.
The finding strongly suggested Burdock and other 4 plants in the Asteraceae family may be used for the treatment of various infectious diseases.
Taken altogether, herbal Burdock may be considered a functional herb for the prevention and combined with other primary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Arctium lappa as a phytotherapeutic agent used in intracanal dressings by Gentil M, Pereira JV, Sousa YT, Pietro R, Neto MD, Vansan LP, de Castro França S.(PubMed)
(2) Antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa constituents against microorganisms commonly found in endodontic infections by Pereira JV, Bergamo DC, Pereira JO, França Sde C, Pietro RC, Silva-Sousa YT.(PubMed)
(3) Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases by Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DA, Nakamura CV, Filho BP. (PubMed)
(4) Comparative insights into the regulation of inflammation: Levels and predictors of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 in young adults in the Philippines by Thomas W. McDade,1,2 Paula S. Tallman,1 Linda S. Adair,3 Borja Judith,4 and Christopher W. Kuzawa. (PMC)