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Thursday, April 4, 2019

Phytochemical Isothiocyanates as Antioxidants

Scientists may have found a bioactive compound Dithiolthiones isolated from the cruciferous vegetables for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases, according to the studies.

According to the oxidative stress theory, aging and cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers are the most common conditions associated with oxidative stress.

Antioxidants are stable molecules which play a critic role to protect our body against oxidation.

There are 2 types of antioxidants, antioxidants produced by the host are called antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant came from dietary intake.

Under normal conditions, antioxidants produced by the host are good enough to keep the levels of free radicals in check.

Oxidative stress, a major cause of many chronic ailments is a result of overexpression of free radical in the body that overwhelms the levels of antioxidants enzymes. In other words, free radicals have started a chain oxidative reaction that has not been stopped, leading to oxidative stress.

Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction.

They may have positive, negative or zero charges. The unpaired electrons cause free radicals to be highly chemically reactive to induce oxidative stress that damage the cell structures, protein and lipid and the alternation of DNA.

According to the study by the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr in the examination of the risk oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease, "The protective role of antioxidants against the development of several diseases and conditions recognized as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD)" and "A variety of health behaviors, including an adequate supply of antioxidant micronutrients with the diet might help preventing AD directly, or indirectly through the mitigation of pathologic conditions associated with AD, such as vascular disease and diabetes".

Therefore, by enhancing antioxidant status in the body through regular physical activity and intake of fruits and vegetables which contain a high amount of dietary antioxidant to offset the free radical toxic effects, the risk of oxidative stress can be reduced substantially

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

In the concern of oxidative stress disorder that leads to age-related and gradual loss of corneal endothelial cells resulting in corneal edema and loss of vision. researchers at the Harvard Medical School, Boston investigated the antioxidant activity of sulforaphane (SFN) and D3T by targeting Nrf2-ARE in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD).

Where Nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2-ARE) is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins that protect against oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation.

In human corneal endothelial cell lines (CEC) induced oxidative stress with tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), injection of SFN decreased CEC apoptosis by 55% in the control group and by 43% in tBHP-treated specimens.

SFN enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in FECD specimens and decreased p53 gene in the cancer cells line under oxidative stress.

Where p53 is a protein that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppression.

Futhermore, the application of SFN protected the cell integrity and viability against injection of tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), causing overexpression of free radicals in the initiation of oxidative stress.

These results clearly suggested SFN significantly promoted major ARE-dependent antioxidants and ameliorated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in FECD.

Dr. Ziaei A said, " targeting Nrf2-ARE pathway may arrest degenerative cell loss seen in FECD".

Most importantly, in the review the anti-oxidant properties of isothiocyanates (ITCs), researchers found that The ITCs induces Phase II enzymes related to detoxification processes of chemical carcinogens to prevent the start of carcinogenesis and exhibits antitumor activity at post-initiation phase,

In other words, ITCs inhibited the substances which can cause cancers and cancers in the early and late stages.

In a dose-dependent manner, ITCs inhibit the cell viability of human cancer cell lines through its antioxidant activity.
The review showed support to the use of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane for cancer and cardiovascular diseases treatments.

Taken altogether, there is no doubt that bioactive compound Isothiocyanates processed a significant antioxidant property may be used for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.Reference
(1) Sulforaphane decreases endothelial cell apoptosis in fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: a novel treatment by Ziaei A1, Schmedt T, Chen Y, Jurkunas UV.(PubMed)
(2) The anti-oxidant properties of isothiocyanates: a review by de Figueiredo SM1, Filho SA, Nogueira-Machado JA, Caligiorne RB.(PubMed)
(3) Structural influence of isothiocyanates on the antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by Prawan A1, Keum YS, Khor TO, Yu S, Nair S, Li W, Hu L, Kong AN.(PubMed)
(4) Oxidative stress and risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: clues to prevention and therapy by Polidori MC. (PubMed)

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