Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition caused by the gradual loss of neurons cells.
In other words, PD is a cognitive deficit associated with the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops that facilitate cognition and parallel the motor loop and loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons.
According to the statistics, more than 10 million people worldwide are living with PD. In the US, every year, 60,000 adults are diagnosed with PD. Approximately, over 95% of people diagnosed with PD are over 50 years of age.
PD can be classified into 5 stages, depending on the severity
* Stage 1
In stage 1, symptoms of PD do not interfere with daily activities.
* Stage 2
In stage 2, the symptoms start to get worse over time. Making living alone to carry daily task now may be difficult.
* Stage 3
The symptoms are now interfering with daily activity, including the impairment of dressing and eating.
* Stage 4
The symptoms are severe with limited functioning, Patients in this stage have required the help of others to carry out daily activity.
* Stage 5, the most advanced stage of PD. Around-the-clock care is required for all activities.
The exact causes of PD are unidentified. However, the epidemiological study suggested that age and sex, genetic factors, head trauma, exposure to chemicals, long-term use of certain medications and drugs are some of the prevalent risks of Parkinson disease (PD).
Some researchers suggested lifelong cigarette smoking may have a strong impact on the risk of PD.
Dr. Chaoran Ma, the lead scientist wrote, "Evidence from epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between cigarette smoking and low risk of Parkinson disease (PD). As a major component of tobacco smoke, nicotine has been proposed to be a substance for preventing against PD risk, with a key role in regulating striatal activity and behaviors mediated through the dopaminergic system".
And, "Animal studies also showed that nicotine could modulate dopamine transmission and reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias".
The results strongly suggested that if you smoke, your risk of PD is increased substantially compared to never smoke healthy adults.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root, the second superfood used for thousands of years by mankind, is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil.
The root has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
Researchers in the concern about Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system and dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum, examined the Zingerone and eugenol, essential oils extracted from ginger and cloves, free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects.
Rodents used in the study were induced PD by injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) intracerebroventricularly.
According to the assays, daily oral administration of eugenol/zingerone and injection of L-DOPA intraperitoneally for 4 weeks following a single 6-OHDA injection did not improve abnormal behaviors induced by L-DOPA treatment.
Where 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA) is the most popular therapeutic medicine for treating PD with adverse effects.
However, injection of zingerone and eugenol alone enhanced the reduction of striatal DA and its metabolites and zingerone decreased the oxidative stress and increased the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase and the oxidized L-ascorbate in the striatum.
In other words, compared to the effects of zingerone against PD through its antioxidant activity, pre-treatment with zingerone or eugenol do not prevent 6-OHDA-induced DA depression by preventing lipid peroxidation.
Taken altogether, ginger may be considered a functional spice for the prevention and treatment of PD, pending to the confirmation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Effects of zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and eugenol [2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol] on the pathological progress in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model by Kabuto H1, Yamanushi TT. (PubMed)
(2) Nicotine from cigarette smoking and diet and Parkinson disease: a review by Chaoran Ma,1 Yesong Liu,2 Samantha Neumann,3 and Xiang Gao. (PMC)
(3) Stages of Parkinson's by Parkinson's Foundation
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