Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Article By Kyle J. Norton
Obesity is defined as a
medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime,
while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to
the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25
to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an
indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American
population are either overweight or obese.
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones
and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However
too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol
cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein
moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too
much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol,
overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing
blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL known as bad
cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls
causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke. Beside
prescription drugs and others, herbs place an important role in helping
to lower cholesterol levels.
Today because of high cost and side
effects of prescription drugs, many people try to seek help from
herbalists for cost effectiveness and results.
1. Body size and abnormal lipids among adult patients
In the study to determine the prevalence of obesity using the measure of body mass index (BMI) and abnormal lipid level and the association between obesity and abnormal lipid level among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, showed that in 400 subjects were randomly selected (221 females and 179 males)
with a mean age of 48.65 ± 16.56 years. The overall prevalence of obesity
was 14.75% (8.9% for males and 19.5% for females p<0.05). The female
subjects were significantly more sedentary than the males (50.8% for
males, 62.4% for females, p<0.05). Most of the subjects who were
obese (88.1%) preferred high calorie food. The overall prevalence of abnormal lipid levels was 28.5% (26.8% for males and 29.9% for females). The prevalence of abnormal lipid levels among the subjects who were obese was 40.7%. Obesity in this environment is particularly significant among females and is associated with abnormal lipid level(1).
2. The Prevalence of Abnormal Metabolic Parameters in Obese and Overweight Children
In the study to determine the prevalence of abnormal metabolic parameters in obese children and its correlation to the degree of obesity determined by body mass index (BMI), showed that 80% of our obese children had a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, 58% had elevated fasting insulin levels,
and 32% had an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Class II
obese children had a 2-fold higher ALT value when compared with class I
children (P = .036). Fasting insulin, ALT, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels trended with class of obesity(2).
3. Offspring birth weight and maternal fasting lipids in women screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
In the study to to examine the relationship between both fasting cholesterol
and triglycerides and offspring birth weight in women screened
selectively for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), showed that of the
189 women recruited, the mean age was 32 years, 35.4% (n=67) were
primigravidas, 44.1% (n=82) were obese and 11.6% (n=22) had an abnormal
OGTT. On univariate analysis, increasing birth weight was correlated
positively with multiparity, first trimester body mass index (BMI), GDM
and hypertriglyceridaemia but not with cholesterol levels. On multivariate analysis, increased birth weight correlated positively only with hypertriglyceridaemia(3).
4. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and abnormal lipid levels among Korean adolescents
In the study of the sample of 1554 adolescents (821 boys and 733 girls) aged 10-19 from the
2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with the MS was defined using the paediatric criteria of the
International Diabetes Federation and abnormal lipid levels were classified according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics, showed that the prevalence of abnormal lipid levels
in overweight and obese adolescents is high, illustrating the large
burden of cardiovascular disease in the future Korean population(4).
5. Survey on the levels of lipids in school-aged children of Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Chongqing and Nanning cities
In the study to investigate the lipid levels
of Han ethnicity Chinese children at school-age, to provide objective
data for the formulation of prevention and management strategy regarding
dyslipidemia among children and adolescents, showed that (1) Levels of
lipids were affected by many factors, but age was not one of them in
children and adolescents. However, HDL-C was declining along with the
increase of age, to some extent. (2) Girls had a relatively protective
tendency through the increasing HDL-C level when they entered the
puberty years. (3) Lipids levels in non-obese group were significantly better than the obese group. (4) The lipids levels
of children and adolescents in the Eastern region of the country were
better than that in the northern and mid-western areas(5).
6. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren
the cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren
in Botucatu city, Brazil, found that 63% of children were obese (body
mass index higher than 95th percentile)
and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children
with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage(6).
7. Attainment of normal lipid levels among patients on lipid-modifying therapy in Hong Kong
In the study to evaluate attainment of lipid goals and normal levels
following lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) and its predictors in a
representative sample of Chinese patients from Hong Kong, showed that
among 706 patients (mean age 64.6 years, 58.6% male), 71.7% had elevated
LDL-C, 32.4% had low HDL-C, and 24.9% had elevated TG before LMT.
Despite therapy (91.2% statins only), 22.7% had elevated LDL-C, 31.9%
had low HDL-C, 12.3% had elevated TG, and 13.9% had multiple abnormal lipid levels. The strongest predictors of attaining ≥ 2 normal lipid levels included male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11 [1.12 to 4.01]), diabetes (OR: 0.43 [0.23 to 0.78]), obesity (OR: 0.91 [0.86 to 0.97]), and CHD risk > 20% (OR: 0.33 [0.15 to 0.71])(7).
8. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet
IN the study to evaluate the relationship between the anti-obesity
effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) and hepatic gene
expression profiles in mice fed long-term on a high-fat diet (HFD), found that KRGE reduces the levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, and atherogenic indices. Levels
of leptin, adiponectin and insulin, which regulate glucose and lipid
metabolism, were impaired profoundly by HFD. However, KRGE treatment
brought these levels back to normal. KRGE was found to down-regulate genes associated with lipid metabolism or cholesterol
metabolism (Lipa, Cyp7a1, Il1rn, Acot2, Mogat1, Osbpl3, Asah3l, Insig1,
Anxa2, Vldlr, Hmgcs1, Sytl4, Plscr4, Pla2g4e, Slc27a3, Enpp6), all of
which were up-regulated by HFD(8).
9. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extract from Alpinia officinarum Hance
In the study to investigate the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Alpinia officinarum ethanolic extract (AOE) for the first time, anti-obesity models in vivo, showed that interestingly, feed intakes among the experimental groups were not
significantly different. Body weight gains were significantly lowered in
the AOE-1 and AOE-2 groups compared with the HFD group (P < .05) and
near to the level of the NC group. AOE also improved the lipid profile
in serum and the pathological changes in liver and adipose tissue and
decreased the relative weights of epididymal and perirenal white adipose
tissues. They improved lipid profile by lowering serum Total-C, TG, and
LDL-C concentrations, leptin content, and the atherogenic index
compared with the HFD group. The HDL-C concentration and the ratio of
HDL-C/Total-C significantly increased compared with those of the HFD
group. The serum ALT activity of the AOE-2 group was notably lower than
that of the HFD group(9).
10. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium chinense leaf powder in obese rats
In the study to to elucidate the obesity
control, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of Lycium chinense leaf
powder intake by obese ratss through 13 weeks of high-fat diet, showed
that the intake of L. chinense leaf powder did not seem to significantly
affect the levels
of serum homocysteine, leptin, and ghrelin compared to the control
group without L. chinense leaf powder intake. The glutathione content in
the liver was significantly higher in the FLP5 group than in the G
group, but the glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly
lower than in the F group. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels
in the liver and kidney were relatively lower in the FLP5 and FLP10
groups than in the G group. In summary, intake of L. chinense leaf
powder in obese rats coincided with a lowering of body weight and levels of serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. It also displayed antioxidant effects(10).
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