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Thursday, November 21, 2013

Obesity and abnormal cholesterol levels

 Posted by Chantel Martiromo,  Article By Kyle J. Norton

 Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke. Beside prescription drugs and others, herbs place an important role in helping to lower cholesterol levels.
Today because of high cost and side effects of prescription drugs, many people try to seek help from herbalists for cost effectiveness and results.

1. Body size and abnormal lipids among adult patients
In the study to determine the prevalence of obesity using the measure of body mass index (BMI) and abnormal lipid level and the association between obesity and abnormal lipid level among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, showed that in 400 subjects were randomly selected (221 females and 179 males) with a mean age of 48.65 ± 16.56 years. The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.75% (8.9% for males and 19.5% for females p<0.05). The female subjects were significantly more sedentary than the males (50.8% for males, 62.4% for females, p<0.05). Most of the subjects who were obese (88.1%) preferred high calorie food. The overall prevalence of abnormal lipid levels was 28.5% (26.8% for males and 29.9% for females). The prevalence of abnormal lipid levels among the subjects who were obese was 40.7%. Obesity in this environment is particularly significant among females and is associated with abnormal lipid level(1).

2. The Prevalence of Abnormal Metabolic Parameters in Obese and Overweight Children
In the study to determine the prevalence of abnormal metabolic parameters in obese children and its correlation to the degree of obesity determined by body mass index (BMI), showed that 80% of our obese children had a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, 58% had elevated fasting insulin levels, and 32% had an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Class II obese children had a 2-fold higher ALT value when compared with class I children (P = .036). Fasting insulin, ALT, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels trended with class of obesity(2).

3. Offspring birth weight and maternal fasting lipids in women screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
In the study to  to examine the relationship between both fasting cholesterol and triglycerides and offspring birth weight in women screened selectively for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), showed that of the 189 women recruited, the mean age was 32 years, 35.4% (n=67) were primigravidas, 44.1% (n=82) were obese and 11.6% (n=22) had an abnormal OGTT. On univariate analysis, increasing birth weight was correlated positively with multiparity, first trimester body mass index (BMI), GDM and hypertriglyceridaemia but not with cholesterol levels. On multivariate analysis, increased birth weight correlated positively only with hypertriglyceridaemia(3).

4. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and abnormal lipid levels among Korean adolescents
In the study of the sample of 1554 adolescents (821 boys and 733 girls) aged 10-19 from the 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with the MS was defined using the paediatric criteria of the International Diabetes Federation and abnormal lipid levels were classified according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics, showed that the prevalence of abnormal lipid levels in overweight and obese adolescents is high, illustrating the large burden of cardiovascular disease in the future Korean population(4).

5. Survey on the levels of lipids in school-aged children of Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Chongqing and Nanning cities
In the study to investigate the lipid levels of Han ethnicity Chinese children at school-age, to provide objective data for the formulation of prevention and management strategy regarding dyslipidemia among children and adolescents, showed that (1) Levels of lipids were affected by many factors, but age was not one of them in children and adolescents. However, HDL-C was declining along with the increase of age, to some extent. (2) Girls had a relatively protective tendency through the increasing HDL-C level when they entered the puberty years. (3) Lipids levels in non-obese group were significantly better than the obese group. (4) The lipids levels of children and adolescents in the Eastern region of the country were better than that in the northern and mid-western areas(5).

6. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

In the cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil, found that 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage(6).

7. Attainment of normal lipid levels among patients on lipid-modifying therapy in Hong Kong
In the study to evaluate attainment of lipid goals and normal levels following lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) and its predictors in a representative sample of Chinese patients from Hong Kong, showed that among 706 patients (mean age 64.6 years, 58.6% male), 71.7% had elevated LDL-C, 32.4% had low HDL-C, and 24.9% had elevated TG before LMT. Despite therapy (91.2% statins only), 22.7% had elevated LDL-C, 31.9% had low HDL-C, 12.3% had elevated TG, and 13.9% had multiple abnormal lipid levels. The strongest predictors of attaining ≥ 2 normal lipid levels included male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11 [1.12 to 4.01]), diabetes (OR: 0.43 [0.23 to 0.78]), obesity (OR: 0.91 [0.86 to 0.97]), and CHD risk > 20% (OR: 0.33 [0.15 to 0.71])(7).

8. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet
IN the study to evaluate the relationship between the anti-obesity effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) and hepatic gene expression profiles in mice fed long-term on a high-fat diet (HFD), found that KRGE reduces the levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, and atherogenic indices. Levels of leptin, adiponectin and insulin, which regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, were impaired profoundly by HFD. However, KRGE treatment brought these levels back to normal. KRGE was found to down-regulate genes associated with lipid metabolism or cholesterol metabolism (Lipa, Cyp7a1, Il1rn, Acot2, Mogat1, Osbpl3, Asah3l, Insig1, Anxa2, Vldlr, Hmgcs1, Sytl4, Plscr4, Pla2g4e, Slc27a3, Enpp6), all of which were up-regulated by HFD(8).

9. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extract from Alpinia officinarum Hance 
In the study to investigate the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Alpinia officinarum ethanolic extract (AOE) for the first time, anti-obesity models in vivo, showed that interestingly, feed intakes among the experimental groups were not significantly different. Body weight gains were significantly lowered in the AOE-1 and AOE-2 groups compared with the HFD group (P < .05) and near to the level of the NC group. AOE also improved the lipid profile in serum and the pathological changes in liver and adipose tissue and decreased the relative weights of epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissues. They improved lipid profile by lowering serum Total-C, TG, and LDL-C concentrations, leptin content, and the atherogenic index compared with the HFD group. The HDL-C concentration and the ratio of HDL-C/Total-C significantly increased compared with those of the HFD group. The serum ALT activity of the AOE-2 group was notably lower than that of the HFD group(9).

10. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium chinense leaf powder in obese rats
In the study to to elucidate the obesity control, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of Lycium chinense leaf powder intake by obese ratss through 13 weeks of high-fat diet, showed that the intake of L. chinense leaf powder did not seem to significantly affect the levels of serum homocysteine, leptin, and ghrelin compared to the control group without L. chinense leaf powder intake. The glutathione content in the liver was significantly higher in the FLP5 group than in the G group, but the glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly lower than in the F group. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in the liver and kidney were relatively lower in the FLP5 and FLP10 groups than in the G group. In summary, intake of L. chinense leaf powder in obese rats coincided with a lowering of body weight and levels of serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. It also displayed antioxidant effects(10).

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23658565
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23851425
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23809999
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23758227
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23290840
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23111146
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22562782
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21918993
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20482258
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673056

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