Substances such as radionuclides, or radiation which can cause the onset of cancer with or without changing the cell DNA are considered carcinogens.
Contrast to general belief, unhealthy lifestyle, long term exposure to the sunlight, certain medical treatment such as radiation, and medications such as immune suppressive drugs, chemicals exposure may also be considered carcinogens.
However, most people exposed to the substances have never developed cancer.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), substances that cause cancer in human can be classified into 5 categories.
Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans
The most dangerous carcinogens are placed in group 1. Therefore, if you are handling any of the substances in the group 1 (the list can be found here), please make sure you protect yourself according to the standard guidelines.
Artichoke is a perennial thistle of Cynara cardunculus species of the Cynara genus, belonging to the family Carduoideae native to Southern Europe around the Mediterranean.
The herbal plant has been used in traditional medicine for as liver protective and detoxified agent, and to treat digestive disorders, abdominal pain gas and bloating, etc.
Researchers on the finding natural therapeutics which block carcinogen in the induction of cancer investigated the antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of the extract of artichoke Cynara cardunculus L. (CCE).
In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutagenicity/antimutagenicity assay, CCE significantly reduced the frequency of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide-induced genetics alternation in the diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae tester strain D7.
In the simultaneous toxicity and clastogenicity/anticlastogenic assay, CCE exerted an anticlastogenic effect against N-nitroso-N'-methyl urea-induced clastogenicity in the plant species.
According to the free radical scavenging assay, CCE also exhibited considerable antioxidant activity against carcinogens.
In order to reveal more information of artichoke, anticarcinogenic activity researchers examined the genotoxicity of C. scolymus L. leaf extract (LE) and the ability to modulate the genetic toxicity of the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), using the comet assay on Chinese hamster ovary cells.
LE demonstrated strong anti genotoxicity after 1- and 24-h treatments by 4 different doses: 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/mL, according to the results from pretreatment, simultaneous treatment, and post-treatment.
All doses also protect the cell against DNA damage induced by the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), after exposure for 1 and 24 h.
Interestingly, the lowest dose of LE was more protective than higher concentrations.
The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects were attributed to the bioactive flavonoids and phenolic compounds found abundantly in artichoke.
Taken altogether, artichoke processed bioactive compound flavonoids and phenolic may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of carcinogenic toxicity, with no side effects, pending to the validation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Antigenotoxic effect of extract from Cynara cardunculus L. by Miadokova E1, Nadova S, Vlckova V, Duhova V, Kopaskova M, Cipak L, Rauko P, Mucaji P, Grancai D. (PubMed)
(2) Artichoke induces genetic toxicity and decreases ethyl methanesulfonate-related DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells by Jacociunas LV1, de Andrade HH, Lehmann M, de Abreu BR, Ferraz Ade B, da Silva J, Dihl RR. (PubMed)
(3) Known and Probable Human Carcinogens by the American Cancer Society
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