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Thursday, June 27, 2019

Phytochemical Betacyanins Kills Bladder Cancer Cells In Vitro

The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.

Bladder cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects men twice as frequently as it affects women. Usually, bladder cancer starts from cells on the surface of the inner lining of the bladder caused by several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder cells.

Depending on the cancer cell originated bladder cancer can be classified into
* Transitional cell carcinoma
Transitional cell carcinoma starts on the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells

* Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer begins in squamous cells found in the tissues of the surface of the bladder, due to long-term infection or irritation. About 8 percent of people with bladder cancers begin squamous cells.

* Adenocarcinoma
Cancer begins originates in glandular tissue of the bladder, including the surface layer of skin, glands and a variety of other tissue, due to long-term irritation and inflammation. Only 2 percent of people with the condition have a third bladder cancer type.

According to the statistics, most cases (90%) of bladder cancer are diagnosed in people older than 55, and the average age people are diagnosed with bladder cancer is 73 worldwide.

Believe it or not, bladder cancer will cause the death of 12,870 in men and 4,800 in women. Among men, bladder cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer death.

Betacyanins are phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

With the aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of bladder cancer, researchers examined the effect betacyanins (BC) purified from beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Rubra L.) alone or in combination with vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.on T24 bladder cancer cells.

According to the tested differentiation, the combination of BC and XVX exhibited a synergistic effect on the inhibition of proliferation in T24 cancer cells at 24 and 48 h but not after 72 h of incubation.

Furthermore, according to the observation of the means of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, the combined treament induced cancer cell apoptosis through activating the protein associated with cell death signaling.

In cell death analysis, the combination promoted the expression of genes involved in pro-apoptosis and inhibited the genes associated with anti-apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines.

Moreover, the combined treatment also demonstrated strong activity in the induction of cytotoxicity against bladder cancer cells without affecting the normal human skin NCTC 2544 keratinocytes.

Based on the finding, Dr. Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa, the lead scientist wrote, "These results demonstrated the efficacy and the mechanisms of the action of BC and XVX, extracted from edible plants, and suggested that a diet or a nutrition supplement, enriched with these bioactive molecules, could be used in the prevention of human bladder cancer".

Taken altogether, betacyanins used alone or combined with herbal remedy may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of betacyanins in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Betacyanins enhance vitexin-2-O-xyloside mediated inhibition of proliferation of T24 bladder cancer cells by Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa, Monica Emanuelli, Alessandra Frati, and Valentina Pozzi (Research Gate)
(2) Bladder Cancer by Kyle J. Norton

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