Colitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the large intestine, including the colon, caecum, and rectum.
Depending on the types of colitis, most common prevalent factors found in patients with such as condition are.
* Familial history of inflammatory bowel disease (odds ratio (OR) 4.3)
* Breastfeeding (OR 2.1)
* Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination (OR 3.6 )
* History of eczema (OR 2.1 (1-4.5))
* Disease during pregnancy (OR 8.9 (1.5-52)), and
* Bedroom sharing (OR 7.1 (1.9-27.4))
* Crohn's disease both appendectomy and tonsillectomy have positive associations. Well-established
* Smoking status
* If you are over 50, you are at increased to develop colitis.
And * Depression and psychosocial stress, according to the basis of data from the Nurses' Health Study, increase the risk for CD, but not UC, among women. Psychological factors might have been found to induce CD developing.
Furthermore, patients with medicals condition such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atrial fibrillation are associated with increased risk to develop ischemic colitis(IC), according to the study by Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health.
Believe it or not, regular drinking of tap water was a protective factor and ulcerative colitis appendicectomy was a protective factor.
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.
With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of colitis, researchers examined the effects of bromelain on the inflammatory response that lead to the onset of colitis.
In epithelial TNFR in rats colitis induced by the intracolonic administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, injection of purified fruit bromelain (PFB) significantly decreased the increased expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2.
Where TNF-α receptor (TNFR) is a proinflammatory cytokine activated by the immune response.
Furthermore, typical symptoms associated with colitis such as infiltration of inflammatory cells, cytokine profiles, epithelial cell apoptosis, and epithelial tight junction barrier dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by PFB.
According to the chemical analysis, fruit bromelain showed a superior inhibition of TNFR2 than that exhibited on TNFR1 compared to those of stem bromelain complex.
In other words, PFB expressed its anti-inflammatory activity by blocking the activation of high expression of epithelial TNFRs.
Based on the findings, researchers said, "PFB-induced TNFR inhibition ameliorated colitis symptoms. These results supply novel insights into potential IBD treatment by PFB".
In other to reveal more information of bromelain anti colitis effects, researchers evaluated the long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) in decreasing colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from the stem.
Colitis triggered in Il10(-/-) mice by exposure to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam for 6 month showed a decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% versus 66%; P < 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (P = 0.05) after receiving treatment of fresh juice.
According to the tested assays, fresh pineapple juice demonstrated proteolytic activity in removing cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte response.
Dr. Hale LP, the lead scientist wrote in the final report, "long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease".
Taken altogether, bromelain used alone or combined with conventional medicine may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of colitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis by Hale LP1, Chichlowski M, Trinh CT, Greer PK. (PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis by Zhou Z1, Wang L1, Feng P1, Yin L2, Wang C3, Zhi S3, Dong J1, Wang J1, Lin Y2, Chen D1, Xiong Y4,5, Peng J. (PubMed)
(3) Colitis - The Risk Factors by Kyle J. Norton
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