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Sunday, June 2, 2019

Phytochemical Betalains, the Anti-Lipid Oxidation Bioactive Compound

Lipid oxidation is a condition of oxidative lipid generation.

In other words, the molecule in the lipid has an unpaired electron in the outer ring.

Free radicals are unstable atoms which have an unpaired electron in the outer most ring. In order to become stable, they must donate or intercept an electron from other stable atoms, leading to a chain reaction that can not be stopped until all electrons in the outer ring are paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Overexpression of free radicals caused by depletion of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host body has been found epidemiologically inducing protein and lipid damage and alternation of cell DNA in facilitating the risk of chronic diseases.


In the examined the pathology of neurological disorders, some researchers suggested that lipid oxidation in the brain may induce neurological disease due to the vulnerability of the central nervous system for reactive oxygen species-mediated injury.


Precisely, the risk of neuro damaged by lipid oxidation is greatest in the brain because the neurons consume large amounts of oxygen, areas containing high iron content, and neuronal mitochondria generate large amounts of hydrogen peroxide, particularly the neuronal membranes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Out of many risk factors that induced lipid oxidation in the body, some researchers suggested that the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades may be one of the major cause of diseases associated with the condition.

Dr. Schrauwen P, the lead scientist wrote, " Twenty-four-hour fat oxidation gradually increased on the high-fat diet. Both at rest and during exercise, there was no change in the rate of appearance of fatty acids and plasma-derived fatty acid oxidation. Triglyceride-derived fatty acid oxidation tended to be higher after 7 days of high-fat diet at rest (P < 0.07)".

And, "the results from this study suggest that triglyceride-derived fatty acid oxidation (VLDL or intramuscular triglycerides) plays a role in the increase in fat oxidation on a high-fat diet, but plasma-derived fatty acids remain the major source for fat oxidation".

The findings strongly suggested people with the weakened immune system and low levels of antioxidant due to aging is vulnerable to lipid oxidation induced neuro-degenerative disease.

Betanin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

With an aim to find a potential ingredient against hyperlipidemia, researchers evaluated the bioavailability of betalains from dietary sources.

The study included 8 healthy volunteers (n = 8) with a single ingestion of 500 g cactus pear fruit pulp, which provided 28 and 16 mg indicaxanthin and betalain, respectively.

According to the first-order kinetics, betanin and indicaxanthin reached their maximum plasma concentrations 3 h after the fruit meal and declined and disappeared from plasma by 12 h after intake.

Thes results suggested that betalain are biologically unstable.

Betalains at concentrations of 100.5 +/- 11 and 50 +/- 7.2 pmol/mg showed a significant effect in protecting the LDL protein against oxidation.

Compared to the samples isolated before fruit ingestion, the higher amounts of betalains showed the higher the resistance against injury caused by lipid oxidation.

In other words, the higher amount of betalains in the blood demonstrated higher protection against tissues damage due to oxidative stress.

Based on the findings, Dr. the lead scientist wrote in the final report, "cactus pear fruit is a source of bioavailable betalains and suggests that indicaxanthin and betanin may be involved in the observed protection of LDL against ex vivo-induced oxidative modifications".

Taken altogether, betanin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of tissues damage caused by lipid oxidation, pending to the confirmation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of betalains in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Absorption, excretion, and distribution of dietary antioxidant betalains in LDLs: potential health effects of betalains in humans by Tesoriere L1, Allegra M, Butera D, Livrea MA. (PubMed)
(2) The role of lipid peroxidation in neurological disorders by Mototada Shichiri. (PMC)
(3) Increase in fat oxidation on a high-fat diet is accompanied by an increase in triglyceride-derived fatty acid oxidation by Schrauwen P1, Wagenmakers AJ, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Saris WH, Westerterp KR. (PubMed)

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