Oxidative stress a condition characterized by either overexpression free radicals comparable to the levels of antioxidant enzymes or depleted levels of antioxidants comparable levels of free radicals in the body.
In other words, oxidative stress is a result of the unbalance in the ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidants.
Free radicals are oxidants produced either from the body essential metabolism or external sources such as exposure to X-rays, ozone, cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and industrial chemicals.
Oxidative stress has been found to alter lipid, protein and cell DNA, leading to atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, ... and post-ischemic perfusion injury.
In lipids, free radical damage the cell membranes affecting the cell ability to transport oxygen, nutrients or water to the cells.
In proteins, free radicals also attack the nucleic acid of the cell, affecting its function in the regulation of cell function, growth and repair the damaged tissues.
In cells, free radicals cause cell damage that has been found to initiate abnormal cell growth and cancers
Antioxidants are stable molecules that inhibit oxidation induced by free radicals.
In healthy individuals, antioxidant enzymes produced by the body is more than enough to inhibit the bombardment of free radicals. However, in people with health issues such as a weakened immune system, intake of dietary antioxidant may be necessary.
Honey, the rich golden liquid is the miraculous product made by bees using nectar from flowers.
The liquid is considered one of healthy sweet food for replacing the use of white sugar and artificial sweetener by many people.
Researchers on finding a natural compound which process the property in the inhibition of oxidative stress examined the Tualang honey (TH) antioxidants profile against oxidative stress of exercise.
The study included 20 female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10).
Observation of the 3-h area under the curve (AUC), LH group compared with the HH group, showed a significant reduction of oxidative stress through the marker Malondialdehyde (MDA).
Compared to the LH groups, the MDA concentration significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from baseline to 2 h and significantly increased from 2 to 3 h in the HH group.
The reactive oxygen species production (ROS) was increased significantly from 0.5 to 3 h in the HH group, compared to the insignificant.change in LH group.
The findings strongly suggested a low dose of honey (LH) intake may have a comparable response in increasing antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes.
Dr. Ahmad NS, the lead scientist, emphasized, " The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption".
In order to reveal more information of Tualang honey antioxidant activity, researchers investigated the Tualang Honey (TH) in the cerebral cortex of rats against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in an animal model of KA-induced excitotoxicity.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats selected to the study were randomly divided into five groups: Control, KA-treated group, TH + KA-treated group, aspirin (ASP; anti-inflammatory agent) + KA-treated group and topiramate (TPM; antiepileptic agent) + KA-treated group.
The animals were also pretreated orally with drinking water, TH (1.0g/kg BW), ASP (7.5mg/kg BW) or TPM (40mg/kg BW), respectively, five times at 12 h intervals. KA (15mg/kg BW) was injected subcutaneously 30 min after last treatment to all groups except the control group (normal saline).
Injection of KA displayed a significantly more neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex and heightened the predilection to seizures as compared with the control animals.
Although pretreatment with TH reduced the KA-induced neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex, the honey failed to prevent the occurrence of KA-induced seizures.
However, TH pretreatment also inhibited the increased locomotor activity and hyperactivity caused by the KA.
Additionally, TH also reduced the levels of oxidative stress by stimulating the production of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host body.
Taken altogether, Tualang honey may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, pending to the confirmation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study by Ahmad NS1, Abdul Aziz A2, Kong KW2, Hamid MSA3, Cheong JPG1, Hamzah SH1. (PubMed)
(2) Effect of tualang honey against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cortex of rats by Mohd Sairazi NS1, K N S S2, Asari MA3, Mummedy S1, Muzaimi M4, Sulaiman SA5. (PubMed)
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