Ginger may be the next natural whole food for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, without inducing any side effects, some scientists said.
Breast cancer is a medical condition caused by cell growth disorderly and irregularly in the breast tissue.
Most cases of primary breast cancer start either in the cell on the surface of the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk.
At the early stage, some women may experience, lump (mass) in the breast or in the armpit (lymph nodes), nipple abnormal discharge, inverted or retracted nipple, scaly or pitted skin on the nipple and persistent tenderness of the breast.
Invasive primary breast cancer at the advanced stage, after penetrating deeper into the breast tissue, the malignant cells can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organs.
Metastatic breast cancer (also called stage IV) are mostly found in the liver, brain, bones, or lungs.
According to the World Health Organization, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both in the developed and less developed world, causing the worldwide death of over 508 000 women in 2011.
In the US, In 2018, over 260,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with over 63,000 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.
The risk of an American woman diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime is 12.4%.
Early diagnosed of breast cancer can increase the chance of survival. The 5 years survival rate of women diagnosed with stage 0 and I is 100%.
The exact causes of breast cancer are unknown. However, researchers do know that genetic preposition, obesity, unhealthy diet and lifestyle such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption are some most prevalent risk factors of breast cancer.
Some researchers also suggested that long-term use of oral contraceptive and psychological stress and anxiety are associated with the increased risk of the disease.
Dr, Kathleen E. Malone, in the concerns of oral contraceptive use at risk of breast cancer said, " In recent years, a large number of studies have focused on breast cancer risk in women under age 45. Meirik and colleagues (1986) published the first report suggesting a dose-response relationship with duration of oral contraceptive use among young women: for use of 8 to 11 years, an RR of 1.4 was found; for 12 or more years of use, a 2.2-fold excess risk of breast cancer was found. Paul and colleagues (1986) reported an RR of 4.6 for use of 10 or more years among women aged 25–34. McPherson and coworkers (1987) found an increased RR of 1.8 for use exceeding 11 years among a group of British women through age 45".
These results clearly indicated the risk of breast cancer is increased linearly to the years of the use of oral contraceptives.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root, the second superfood used for thousands of years by mankind, is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil.
The root has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
On finding a nonexpensive natural ingredient and whole food for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, researchers examine the anti-breast cancer effects of kombucha tea with or without ginger.
Selected BALB/c mice were given 2 types of kombucha tea with or without ginger before and after tumor challenge.
Administration of kombucha ginger tea demonstrated a significantly decreased catalase activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen and GSH and MDA level in tumor homogenate compared to kombucha without ginger.
Furthermore, the mice group treated the combined products significant decrease in SOD activity and an increase in MDA quantity in the tumors.
Dr. Salafzoon S, the lead scientists said, " The consumption of kombucha prepared from ginger could exert minor antioxidant impacts by balancing multi-antioxidant factors in different tissues in the breast cancer models".
Moreover, in the investigation of -gingerol anti-breast cancer activity, using human MDA-MB-231TNBC cells, compared to non-tumor MCF-10A breast cells, researchers suggested -gingerol was able to inhibit cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and apoptosis more effectively in TNBC cells, without causing harm to the nearby healthy cells.
Additional analysis also found,  gingerol anti-breast cancer properties are associated with the apoptotic and genotoxic activity, through stimulating the free radicals overexpression in the induction of cancer cells cytotoxicity.
After taking into account co and confounders, the team said, " ...results found here are complementary to previous studies of group and others and demonstrate that additional mechanisms, besides apoptotic cell death, are used by -gingerol to accomplish its antitumor and antimetastatic effects".
Taken altogether, ginger with abundant bioactive compounds may be considered a functional food for the prevention and combined with other primary therapy for the treatment of breast cancer with no side effects.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Evaluation of the antioxidant impact of ginger-based kombucha on the murine breast cancer model by Salafzoon S1, Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini H2, Halabian R. (PubMed)
(2) -Gingerol Affects Multiple Metastatic Processes and Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Breast Tumor Cells by Fuzer AM1, Martin ACBM1, Becceneri AB1, da Silva JA2, Vieira PC3, Cominetti MR. (PubMed)
(3) -gingerol induces apoptosis and inhibits metastatic dissemination of triple-negative breast cancer in vivo by Martin ACBM#1, Fuzer AM#1, Becceneri AB1, da Silva JA2, Tomasin R1, Denoyer D3, Kim SH4, McIntyre KA5, Pearson HB6, Yeo B7, Nagpal A7, Ling X4, Selistre-de-Araújo HS8, Vieira PC2, Cominetti MR#1, Pouliot. (PubMed)
(4) A. Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence with an Emphasis on Younger Women by Kathleen E. Malone. (NCBI)
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