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Sunday, April 20, 2014

Herbal Ginseng and Skin Aging

Posted by Chantel Martiromo 

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affected skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
The degradation of the epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, such as UV Exposure, decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity(c) as well as some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling, etc.,  cause modification of the surface of skin and the physical properties of that lead to skin aging.
Certain chemical ingredients, such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc.  derived from herbs have been found to be intergraded  into some cosmetic products in treating premature aging(d)
Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root). In vivo, Korean red ginseng showed to enhance extension of lifespan, increase resistance to most forms of disease, through regulation of organisms' metabolism(10), and reduce wrinkle formation through
inhibition of collagen degradation rather than increased collagen synthesis(11), protect against skin photodamage, through increasing the production of profilaggrin and filaggrin(12). Ginsenoside Rd, a chemical constituent of Ginseng also exerted its anti-oxidative effects through activation of  anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects through down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2(13). On gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells, extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng, showed a significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging(14). In the study of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) effects on aging skin, researchers at the Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University found that FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG(15).

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References
(a) Skin ageing: natural weapons and strategies by Binic I1, Lazarevic V, Ljubenovic M, Mojsa J, Sokolovic D.(PubMed)
(b) Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations by Saraf S1, Kaur CD.(PubMed)
(c) Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis by Sage J1, De Quéral D2, Leblanc-Noblesse E2, Kurfurst R2, Schnebert S2, Perrier E2, Nizard C2, Lalmanach G3, Lecaille F4.(PubMed)
(d) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging by Mukherjee PK1, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK.(PubMed)
(11) Effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice by Kang TH1, Park HM, Kim YB, Kim H, Kim N, Do JH, Kang C, Cho Y, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(12) Enzyme-processed Korean Red Ginseng extracts protects against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in hairless mice by Hwang E1, Sun ZW, Lee TH, Shin HS, Park SY, Lee DG, Cho BG, Sohn H, Kwon OW, Kim SY, Yi TH.(PubMed)
(13) Ginsenoside Rd inhibits the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse liver by Kim DH1, Chung JH, Yoon JS, Ha YM, Bae S, Lee EK, Jung KJ, Kim MS, Kim YJ, Kim MK, Chung HY.(PubMed)
(14) Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic by Rattan SI1, Kryzch V, Schnebert S, Perrier E, Nizard C.(PubMed)
(15) Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study by Lee HS1, Kim MR, Park Y, Park HJ, Chang UJ, Kim SY, Suh HJ.(PubMed)
 

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