Posted by Chantel Martiromo
Human skin pigmentation is the result of natural selection evolved to
prevent damage to skin through regulation of ultraviolet radiated
penetration depending to the production of melanin in the skin cells.
a. Vitiligo is defined as a condition of destruction of cells that give your skin its color, causing white patches on your skin.
b. Albinism is a congenital disorder causes of complete or
partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes as a result
of restriction of the skin cells from producing melanin
2.Hyper pigment is a result of over production of pigments of
certain cells in the skin, causing skin darkening in some area, such as
tan or brown patches, commonly on the facial skin
3. Skin discoloring is a result of discoloring your skin in specific spots or very widespread
4. Chloasma is the appearance of brown patches of pigmentation on the forehead, cheeks, and neck
due to hormonal change during pregnancy.
5. Melasma happens to women who have fluctuation of hormones, are
taking birth control pills and certain medications. with
brownish-grayish patches on the skin, most often on the cheek.
Free radical scavengers Vitamin E
Vitamin E, a fat soluble vitamin, consisting eight different variants
(alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-,
gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) with varying levels of biological
activity(26), found abundantly in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine,
wheat germ oil, sunflower,safflower oils, etc. plays an important role
in neurological functions and inhibition of platelet aggregation,
regulation of enzymatic activity, free radical scavenger, etc..
The study in comparison of the effects of vitamin E analogues (d-alpha-,
dl-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma-, and d-delta-tocopherols, d-alpha- and
dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetates) and 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-hydroxychroman
(PMC) on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells, showed a positive
effects of d-beta-tocopherol and d-gamma-tocopherol, 2 variants of
vitamin E, in skin whitening with lower skin toxicity, as well as improved skin pigmentation such as skin
spots and freckles caused by UV exposure(27). According to Kobe
University School of Medicine, alpha-Tocopheryl ferulate (alpha-TF), a
compound containing alpha-T (a variant of vitamin E) and ferulic
acid exhibited an efficient whitening effects, through suppressed melanogenesis and inhibited biological reactions induced by reactive oxygen species(28)(29).
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(a) Tyrosinase modulation by five Rwandese herbal medicines traditionally used for skin treatment by Kamagaju L1, Morandini R, Bizuru E, Nyetera P, Nduwayezu JB, Stévigny C, Ghanem G, Duez P.(PubMed)
(b) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Rwanda for voluntary depigmentation by Kamagaju L1, Bizuru E, Minani V, Morandini R, Stévigny C, Ghanem G, Duez P.(PubMed)
(c) Tyrosinase inhibition by extracts and constituents of Sideroxylon inerme L. stem bark, used in South Africa for skin lightening by Momtaz S1, Mapunya BM, Houghton PJ, Edgerly C, Hussein A, Naidoo S, Lall N.(PubMed))
(27) Comparison of the inhibitory effects of vitamin E analogues on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells by Kamei Y1, Otsuka Y, Abe K.(PubMed)
(28) The depigmenting effect of alpha-tocopheryl ferulate on human melanoma cells by Funasaka Y1, Chakraborty AK, Komoto M, Ohashi A, Ichihashi M.(PubMed)
(29) Depigmenting effect of alpha-tocopheryl ferulate on normal human melanocytes by Funasaka Y1, Komoto M, Ichihashi M.(PubMed)