Human skin pigmentation is the result of natural selection evolved to prevent damage to skin through regulation of ultraviolet radiated penetration depending to the production of melanin in the skin cells.
a. Vitiligo is defined as a condition of destruction of cells that give your skin its color, causing white patches on your skin.
b. Albinism is a congenital disorder causes of complete or
partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes as a result
of restriction of the skin cells from producing melanin
2.Hyper pigment is a result of over production of pigments of
certain cells in the skin, causing skin darkening in some area, such as
tan or brown patches, commonly on the facial skin
3. Skin discoloring is a result of discoloring your skin in specific spots or very widespread
4. Chloasma is the appearance of brown patches of pigmentation on the forehead, cheeks, and neck
due to hormonal change during pregnancy.
5. Melasma happens to women who have fluctuation of hormones, are
taking birth control pills and certain medications. with
brownish-grayish patches on the skin, most often on the cheek.
Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine in skin lighting may have produced certain interest results(a)(b)(c).
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found
abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc.
Piceatannol, a derivative of resveratrol exerted its antimelanogenic action through the combined effect of antioxidative property
and suppressed RS generation while increasing the GSH/GSSG ratio(30). According to 1Johnson &
Johnson Skin Research Center, resveratrol may be a potential cosmetic skin whitening agent through
reduced microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase promoter activities(31).
Glutathione (GSH), an antioxidants plays an important role in protecting cells against the free radicals
and ixidative stress, may be a potential agent in the management of hyperpigmentation(32). According
to the Chulalongkorn University, orally administered glutathione, 500 mg per day for 4 weeks, was found
effectively in reduced melanin indices consistently in all subjects(33) and may be used in the treatment
of pigmentary disorders.(34). Other study also indicated the effectiveness of glutathione in regulating
melanocytotoxicity and depigmenting potency of N-acetyl-4-S-CAP in black and yellow mice(35)
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(a) Tyrosinase modulation by five Rwandese herbal medicines traditionally used for skin treatment by Kamagaju L1, Morandini R, Bizuru E, Nyetera P, Nduwayezu JB, Stévigny C, Ghanem G, Duez P.(PubMed)
(b) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Rwanda for voluntary depigmentation by Kamagaju L1, Bizuru E, Minani V, Morandini R, Stévigny C, Ghanem G, Duez P.(PubMed)
(c) Tyrosinase inhibition by extracts and constituents of Sideroxylon inerme L. stem bark, used in South Africa for skin lightening by Momtaz S1, Mapunya BM, Houghton PJ, Edgerly C, Hussein A, Naidoo S, Lall N.(PubMed))
(31) Modulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression alters skin pigmentation by Lin CB1, Babiarz L, Liebel F, Roydon Price E, Kizoulis M, Gendimenico GJ, Fisher DE, Seiberg M.(PubMed)
(32) Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation by Alexis AF Blackcloud P.(PubMed)
(33) Glutathione as an oral whitening agent: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by Arjinpathana N1, Asawanonda P.(PubMed)
(34) Glutathione as a depigmenting agent: an overview by Villarama CD1, Maibach HI.(PubMed)
(35) Glutathione plays a key role in the
depigmenting and melanocytotoxic action of
N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol in black and yellow hair follicles by
Alena F1, Dixon W, Thomas P, Jimbow K.(PubMed)