Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area caused by abnormal cells growth with alternation of cells DNA. According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of 4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).
Depending to the stage and grade of the cancer, if the cancer is found in the early stahe, hysterectomy may not be needed. Other while after sugery, chemotherapy including Cisplatin, Fluorouracil (5-FU), Mitomycin, Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Bevacizumab and radiotherapy may be necesary, but with certain side effects. Emerging suggestion of a healthy and balanced diet to improve high serum levels of antioxidants may reduce cervical neoplasia risk(b)(c) but other suggested that the role of diet and nutrition in the etiology of cervical cancer is not yet resolved(d) and Catalan Institute of Oncology study showed statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC)(e).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine in reduced risk of cervical cancer have not been consistent. But certain herbs and spice may be effective in treating cervical caner(1) with little or no side effects.
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) also known as sweetwood, is the genus Glycyrrhiza, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to the Mediterranean and certain areas of Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, inflammation, arthritis, etc.
In cervical cancer Ca Ski cells, Isoliquiritigenin, a constituent of licorice induced apoptosis of the cancer cell line through down regulation of HPV(Human papillomavirus) 16 E6 expression associated with an increase of p53(tumor suppressor) and p21(cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) levels, enhanced expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and Bid, triggering dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, released cytochrome c to the cytosol followed by activation of caspase cascade with cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. Caspase-8.(6) or through G2/M phase arrest was also associated with decreases in the amounts of cyclin B, cyclin A, cdc2, and cdc25C, and increases in the phosphorylation of Chk2, cdc25C, and cdc2.(7). Other chemical constituent Liquiritigenin (LQ), inhibited the growth of tumors xenografted in nude mice from human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells, in a dose dependent manner(8).
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(a) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(b) Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women by Tomita LY1, Longatto Filho A, Costa MC, Andreoli MA, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; Brazilian Investigation into Nutrition and Cervical Cancer Prevention (BRINCA) Study Team.(PubMed)
(c) Associations of dietary dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables and fruits with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: modification by smoking by Tomita LY1, Roteli-Martins CM, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; BRINCA Study Team.(PubMed)
(d) Diet and the risk of in situ cervical cancer among white women in the United States by Ziegler RG1, Jones CJ, Brinton LA, Norman SA, Mallin K, Levine RS, Lehman HF, Hamman RF, Trumble AC, Rosenthal JF, et al.(PubMed)
(e) Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study by González CA1, Travier N, Luján-Barroso L, Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Roura E, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Palli D, Boeing H, Pala V, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Manjer J, Dillner J, Hallmans G, Kjellberg L, Sanchez MJ, Altzibar JM, Barricarte A, Navarro C, Rodriguez L, Allen N, Key TJ, Kaaks R, Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Munk C, Kjaer SK, Peeters PH, van Duijnhoven FJ, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Naska A, Lund E, Engeset D, Skeie G, Franceschi S, Slimani N, Rinaldi S, Riboli E.(PubMed)
(6) Isoliquiritigenin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via downregulation of HPV16 E6 expression in cervical cancer Ca Ski cells by Hirchaud F1, Hermetet F, Ablise M, Fauconnet S, Vuitton DA, Prétet JL, Mougin C.(PubMed)
(7)Shallot and licorice constituent isoliquiritigenin arrests cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis through the induction of ATM/p53 and initiation of the mitochondrial system in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by Hsu YL1, Chia CC, Chen PJ, Huang SE, Huang SC, Kuo PL.(PubMed)
(8) Liquiritigenin inhibits tumor growth and vascularization in a mouse model of HeLa cells by Liu Y1, Xie S, Wang Y, Luo K, Wang Y, Cai Y.(PubMed)