Fertility is a natural process to insure the survival of human species. Through natural selection, we produce many offspring when the reproductive system works at it's peak in the suitable environment with plenty of food around. On the other hand, the reproductive system may completely shut down or work at it's minimum state and we produce less offspring, when the environment is hostile including less foods around, war, epidemic, but regardless of all these factors, most women are capable of conceiving during their menstrual cycle before reaching the stage of menopause.
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body due to injure or gene defects. Some of them can be treated by medical attention, some can not.
Birth defect causes of infertility
1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
As a genetic passing through condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia is present at birth and can affect both boy and girl alike. It is caused the lack an enzyme which is vital for the adrenal gland to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone resulting in higher than normal testosterone hormone in the body. While girl is born with muscular appearance with high levels of testosterone hormone, it leads to abnormal menstrual period and causing infertility. The disease may be difficult to diagnosis in boy, but it may interfere with the growth and normal function of the reproductive organ including the test and penis leading to infertility.
2. Congenital abnormality
Abnormalities present at birth may interfere with the fertility and carry the pregnancy to term.
a) In men
Epididymis, crytorchidism, etc.
b) In women
Abnormal formation of cervix, cervical canal, septate uterus, etc
Crytorchilism also known as undesenced testicles, It uses to happen to premature child. If it is not repaired by age six, it may causespermanent infertility because of no sperm in the semen.
4. Cystic fibrosis
It is a genetic disease present at birth. Men with cystic fibroisis was born with absence of the vas deferens where it connect the testicle and epididymis to the ejaculating duct leading to infertility as resulting of impossible for sperm to pass through the penis.
Epipadas is a type of abnormal formation of the penis at birth in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the penis. Men with epipadas have normal sperm production, but the ejaculating sperm can not deposit to the cervix interfering with sexual erection and leading to infertility.
Normally men carry X and Y chromosome and women carry X chromosome, study show infertility may be caused by genetic abnormality including abnormality part of Y chromosome and loss of large part of Y chromosome leading to lower sperm count and interfering with fertility.
7. Sepate uterus
Sepate uterus is a condition in which the uterus is divided by septum into separate half. Since the uterus is divided, each half has little space for the fetus to grow. It may not interferes with implantation of fertilized eggs but the pregnancy may end with premature birth of miscarriage.
8. Testicle feminization
It is caused by enzymatic defect. Men with testicle feminization look like a women but have both X any Y chromosomes and fail to response to the male hormone testosterone.
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