Tuesday, November 4, 2014
Overcome Infertility --Understand Fertility
Posted by Chantel Martiromo
Fertility is a natural process to insure the survival of human species. Through natural selection, we produce many offspring when the reproductive system works at it's peak in the suitable environment with plenty of food around. On the other hand, the reproductive system may completely shut down or work at it's minimum state and we produce less offspring, when the environment is hostile including less foods around, war, epidemic, but regardless of all these factors, most women are capable of conceiving during their menstrual cycle before reaching the stage of menopause.
I. The rate of pregnancy
Statistics show that before:
1) the age of 31, 73% will get pregnant within one year, and 90% within four years
2) the age of 36, 65% will get pregnant within one year, and 82% within four years.
3) the age of 41, 40% will get pregnant within one year, and 60% within four years
You can see the rate of pregnancy goes down with age.
Although women can get pregnant anytime during their menstrual cycle, the best days to get pregnant are 2 days before and after ovulation because the sperm can only survive 2-3 days(sperm may survive up to 6 days) in the uterus after ejaculating into the vagina.
II. The natural process
1. Men produce sperm as soon as they reach puberty and at any time of the month, but their sperm quality and quantity may dip occasionally, depending to their internal cycle, therefore it is easy to understand that some women can conceive with her partner at the age of 95.
2. The female is born with a finite number of eggs in their ovaries. When females reach the age of puberty, every month some of the eggs in their ovaries mature and are extruded and only one can get into the Fallopian tube for fertility, the rest degenerate and die. When the eggs are less than a certain number in the ovaries, she enters the menopause state.
III. The long journey
1. The egg (ovum)
If the menstrual cycle is 28 days:
a ) In the early stage of the menstrual cycle the levels of estrogen rise. It stimulates the production of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) hormones from the pituitary gland and the follicles mature 2 to 3 days before ovulation. As the estrogen levels reaches it's peak, it stimulates the cervix to make cervical mucus which is friendly to the sperm invasion and the pituitary gland releases LH (luteinizing hormone) which triggers ovulation within 48 hours and the egg starts the long journey of travelling through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus.
b) After ovulation, the follicle starts to produce progesterone, the cervical mucus starts to become more sticky and unfriendly day by day to sperm invasion and the cervix opening to the vagina starts to close dramatically. The endometrial lining to the uterus now softens and is ready for the nourishing of the fertilized egg, if pregnancy occurs. Now you know how many experts tell you that the best days to get conceived is 2 days before and after ovulation, because sperm also needs about 2 days to get into the Fallopian tube.
c) If pregnancy does not occur,the corpus luteum creases to produce progesterone and subsequently stop, the soft lining is shed and the woman menstruates. During menstruation the levels of estrogen decrease, which again triggers the increase in FSH and the menstrual cycle starts over again.
2. The sperm
a) After ejaculating into the vagina, if the cervix is closed dramatically or the cervical mucus is hostile to the sperm, there is little change. One of them will make it to Fallopian tube. On the other hand, if the cervix is opened and the cervical mucus is friendly to the sperm, then the sperm will travel toward the opening of the cervix and one of the winners will enter the fallopian tube to fertilize the mature egg and travel towards the uterus for implantation in the soft lining.
b) After one sperm penetrates (by releasing acrosome, then acrosin so it can pass through the tough cumulus oophorus and break through the zone pellucida accordingly) into the egg and the egg is fertilized. It then continuously divides itself into a fetus then into a baby.
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