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Monday, August 26, 2019

Phytochemical Alliin Reduced Metabolic Risk Factors Against Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes in Vivo

Metabolic risk factors are the cluster conditions are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

In other words, if you have 3 or more risk factors of too much fat around the waist, elevated blood pressure, high triglycerides, elevated blood sugar, and low HDL cholesterol, you are considered at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes compared to those who have less.

There is no single cause of metabolic syndrome. However, most cases of MetS are found in overweight and obese patients, particularly in those with insulin resistance, the condition caused by the inability of the body to use insulin properly in converting sugar to energy.

Symptoms are depending on the risk factors which the patients have, such as high blood pressure and cholesterol and glucose.

Other than the aforementioned risk factors, epidemiologically, aging, family history, physical inactivity and women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at a higher risk of the condition onset.

Some researchers suggested the rise of metabolic syndrome in the US over the past few decades may be correlated with the promotion of a high-fat diet in the Western world.

Dr. Wabitsch, M., the lead scientist wrote, "Specific alterations of the Western Diet uniquely drive this process and are unrelated to calories. These alterations include too little fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and micronutrients, and too many omega-6 fatty acids, trans-fats, branched-chain amino acids, ethanol, and fructose. The food industry invokes personal responsibility while denying any corporate responsibility and citing scientific, policy, and social arguments. However, their responses obfuscate the scientific truth in order to obviate their culpability".

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

On finding a natural compound for the treatment of metabolic risk in diabetics, researchers investigated the effects of alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) is a bioactive sulfoxide compound derived from garlic against metabolic risk factors in a diet-induced animal model.

The selected diet-induced obese C57BL/6J DIO mice were treated by drinking water with or without alliin (0.1 mg/ml) for 8 weeks.

According to the tested assays, alliin showed no significant effect on the body weight, adiposity or energy balance, however, alliin significantly reduced the levels of glucose homeostasis, increased insulin sensitivity and the lipid profile associated with metabolic risk factors.

The efficacy of alliin against the onset of hyperglycemia in obese tested mice was attributed at least in part by balancing the levels of gut microbiota.

In other words, alliin modulated of the intestinal microbiota composition by decreasing levels of Lachnospiraceae and increasing levels of Ruminococcaceae.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "alliin has nutraceutical or even medicinal potential in the prevention of diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders(in the induction of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia)".

Furthermore, in order to reveal more information about alliin antimetabolic activity, researchers compared the therapeutic effects of alliin extracted from garlic leaves of plants grown under ex-situ and in situ conditions.
According to the results of bioanalysis on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats in five weeks experiment
* Alliin produced from in situ grown-plants showed a significant reduction of the serum glucose, triglycerides, total lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol in diabetic rats of 54%, 15%, 14%, 20%, 24%,and 15% repetitively.

* Alliin produced from ex-situ grown-plants showed lesser effect in the reduction of 35%, 14%, 10%, 12%, 17%, and 11%, respectively

* Both were compared to those treated with distilled water.

* Additionally, alliin produced from in and ex-situ grown-plants showed no effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol.

Based on the findings, Dr. Nasim SA, the lead scientist wrote, "These findings demonstrate leaf extract obtained from plants grown under in situ conditions possess higher therapeutic efficiency in comparison with leaf extract obtained from plants grown under ex situ condition".

In other words, alliin produced from original grown-plants is more effective compared to alliin produced by ex-situ.

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for reducing metabolic risk with no side effect, responding to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of S-allyl-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) in DIO mice.
Zhai B1, Zhang C1, Sheng Y1, Zhao C2, He X1,3, Xu W1,3, Huang K1,3, Luo Y. (PubMed)
(2) Alliin obtained from leaf extract of garlic grown under in situ conditions possess higher therapeutic potency as analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Nasim SA1, Dhir B, Kapoor R, Fatima S, Mahmooduzzafar, Mujib A. (PubMed)
(3) Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence by Editor(s): Kiess, W. (Leipzig), Wabitsch, M. (Ulm), Maffeis, C. (Verona), and Sharma, A.M. (Edmonton, Alta.). (Karger)

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