Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. According to American academy, allergy, asthma and immunology, about 1 in 10 children (10%) had asthma and 1 in 12 adults (8%) had asthma in 2009. (about 25 million, or 8% of the U.S. population).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbs in reduced risk and treatment of asthma have been inconclusive but certain herbs have been found to be effectively in some studies.
Ginkgo biloba is oldest living tree species, genus Ginkgo, belonging to the family Ginkgoaceae, native to China, from temperate zone to subtropical zone and some parts of north America. It Has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss, respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting.
Ginkgolide B (GKB), a major chemical compound of ginkgo biloba, in BALB/c mice exerted its anti asthmatic activity through inhibited the increase of T-helper 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased eosinophil count via inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway(4). The composition of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb761), astaxanthin (ASX) and vitamin C, also showed to exhibit the inhibition of asthma-associated inflammation in asthmatic guinea-pigs(5) and Ginkgo biloba extracts showed to inhibit asthmatic disorder through suppression tof NF-kappaB gene expression actively in HL-60 cells(6). Accordiong to Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, biloba alleviates all established chronic histological changes of lung except smooth muscle thickness in a mouse model of asthma(7).
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(1) Anti-asthmatic effects of Angelica dahurica against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Lee MY1, Seo CS, Lee JA, Lee NH, Kim JH, Ha H, Zheng MS, Son JK, Shin HK.(PubMed)
(2) Danggui Buxue Tang attenuates eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice by Lin CC1, Liou CJ, Chiang CY, Huang WY, Huang WC.(PubMed)
(3) Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants by Makchuchit S1, Itharat A, Tewtrakul S.(PubMed)
(4) A novel anti-inflammatory role for ginkgolide B in asthma via inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway by Chu X1, Ci X, He J, Wei M, Yang X, Cao Q, Li H, Guan S, Deng Y, Pang D, Deng X.(PubMed)
(5) Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen by Haines DD1, Varga B, Bak I, Juhasz B, Mahmoud FF, Kalantari H, Gesztelyi R, Lekli I, Czompa A, Tosaki A(PubMed)
(6) [Studies on the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts on NF-kappaB pathway].[Article in Chinese] by Li GH1, Lei XX, Yi YM, Xu BL, Wang HP, Du J.(PubMed)
(7) Effects of Ginkgo biloba on airway histology in a mouse model of chronic asthma by Babayigit A1, Olmez D, Karaman O, Ozogul C, Yilmaz O, Kivcak B, Erbil G, Uzuner N.(PubMed)