Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. According to American academy, allergy, asthma and immunology, about 1 in 10 children (10%) had asthma and 1 in 12 adults (8%) had asthma in 2009. (about 25 million, or 8% of the U.S. population).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbs in reduced risk and treatment of asthma have been inconclusive but certain herbs have been found to be effectively in some studies.
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) also known as sweetwood, is the genus Glycyrrhiza, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to the Mediterranean and certain areas of Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, inflammation, arthritis, etc. Licochalcone A (Lico A) isolated from the root of Xinjiang liquorice, exerted its anti-inflammatory activity on a non-infectious mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the increase in T-helper type 2 cytokines and reduced serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG(8). ASHMI, the composition of aqueous extracts of Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum), Kushen (Sophora flavescens) and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), showed to be effective on allergic asthma, through inhibition of production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 by murine memory Th2 cells and eotaxin-1 production by HLF-1 cells(9).
Other study in a murine model also suggested that ASHMI not only significantly reduce eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, serum IgE levels, IL-4 and IL-13 levels, but also increase IFN-γ production in lung cell cultures in response to antigen stimulation(10).
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(8) Attenuation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma by Licochalcone A by Chu X1, Jiang L, Wei M, Yang X, Guan M, Xie X, Wei J, Liu D, Wang D.(PubMed)
(9) Constituents of the anti-asthma herbal formula ASHMI(TM) synergistically inhibit IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by murine Th2 memory cells, and eotaxin by human lung fibroblasts in vitro by Jayaprakasam B1, Yang N, Wen MC, Wang R, Goldfarb J, Sampson H, Li XM.(PubMed)
(10) Glycyrrhiza uralensis flavonoids present in anti-asthma formula, ASHMI™, inhibit memory Th2 responses in vitro and in vivo by Yang N1, Patil S, Zhuge J, Wen MC, Bolleddula J, Doddaga S, Goldfarb J, Sampson HA, Li XM.(PubMed)