Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a medical condition of thickening of the heart muscle, leading to reduced function of the heart in pumping blood throughout the body.
The heart muscles made up the bulk of the heart’s mass control the heartbeat with high contractile strength and endurance.
Cardiac muscle also has a unique function to regulate the heart performance by spreading electrochemical signals all cells in the heart.
Damage of heart muscle has bee found to induce blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).
In some cases, head muscles associated disease also are found in patients with congenital heart defects.
Symptoms of include breathlessness with exertion or at rest, legs, ankles, and feet swelling. persistent fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting, particularly, in the symptoms of irregular heartbeats.
Conventionally, treatment of diseases associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy depending on the types of heart disease, including lowering blood pressure medication such as ACE inhibitors; lowing the heart rate, such as beta blockers, normalizing heart beating and balancing electrolytes in the body.
Making a healthy lifestyle change and moderate exercise may also recommend by your doctor.
Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, smoking can be considered one of the major prevalent factor.
Dr. Moustafa Al Hariri,, the lead scientist wrote, "Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system".
And, "(According to the results of the study) cigarette smoking exposure is associated with significant cardiovascular pathology such as cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, pro-fibrotic, and atherogenic markers and aortic calcification in an animal model as assessed 1-month post exposure".
Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide, a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.
In the urgency to discover a natural compound for the treatment of heart disease, researchers examined alliin, the main constituent found in garlic in the prevention of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death.
The study included adult rat cardiomyocytes induce hypertrophy by Norepinephrine (NE) was pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts.
Before treatment of garlic skin and flesh extracts, exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death, an indication of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
This increase of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death was prevented significantly upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts.
Furthermore, the increased cells apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes by norepinephrine were also inhibited by the presence of the extract.
In the constituent analysis, the efficacy of anti cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death may be attributed to the concentration of allicin and alliin.
In order to reveal more information about the alliin anti cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the team from the SASTRA-Deemed University investigated the preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in male Wistar rats.
The selected rat was were pretreated with SACS (40 and 80 mg kg(-1) body-weight) for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, followed by the ISO (150 mg kg(-1) body-weight) administered subcutaneously at intervals of 24 h for 2 days.
According to the tested assays, oral pretreatment with SACS significantly decreased the activity of HMG CoA reductase associated with the production of cholesterol and other isoprenoids and significantly increased the activity of LCAT involved converting free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester in ISO-induced rats.
Futhermore, pretreatment with SACS significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxides in ISO-treated rats.
In concentration perspective, at a dose of 80 mg kg(-1) body-weight was more effective in normalizing all the biochemical parameters compared to the dose of 40 mg kg(-1) body-weight.
In other words, alliin inhibited the onset of myocardial ischemia caused by isoproterenol (ISO) in a doses dependent manner, in vitro and vivo.
Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide by Louis XL1, Murphy R, Thandapilly SJ, Yu L, Netticadan T. (PubMed)
(2) Preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) on cardiac marker enzymes and lipids in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by Sangeetha T1, Darlin Quine S. (PubMed)
(3) Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury Are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in an Animal Model by Moustafa Al Hariri,1,† Kazem Zibara,2,3,† Wissam Farhat,2,† Yasmine Hashem,4Nadia Soudani,4,5 Farah Al Ibrahim,3 Eva Hamade,2,3 Asad Zeidan,4 Ahmad Husari,6,* andFiras Kobeissy. (PMC)
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