Osteoporosis is a condition associated with low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue.
The disease is most common in older adults as the result of the bone made by the body can not cover the bone loss due to an increased serum of osteoclast mediator involved in bone resorption.
Consequently, the bone in osteoporotic patients become weak and breaking easily from a fall.
Believe it or not, in serious cases, bone can also be broken due to sneezings or minor bumps.
According to the statistics provided by the International Osteoporosis Foundation, approximately 44 million U.S. women and men aged 50 and older suffer from osteoporosis and low bone mass.
There are over 200 million women worldwide affected by osteoporosis, including one-tenth of women aged 60, one-fifth of women aged 70, two-fifths of women aged 80 and two-thirds of women aged 90.
The most common cause of osteoporosis is the reduced production of hormones, particularly estrogen in women and androgen in men due to aging or other conditions such as medical condition.
(Diseases associated with osteoporosis include rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatological conditions, steroid hormone Deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, and chronic kidney and liver disease).
In older women, menopause accompanied by lower estrogen levels are found in patients with osteoporosis.
According to the epidemiological studies, being a woman and being older, family history with osteoporosis, a small frame, and structure, ethnicity, follow a long-term calcium deficient diet are some of the prevalent factors of disease.
However, out of the aforementioned risk factors, some researchers suggested smoking may be one of the major culprits in inducing the risk of the condition in the Southeast Asain.
The research team at the University of Pennsylvania in the study of how smoking causes osteoporosis, said, ""It has been known from many epidemiological studies that smokers usually show bone loss, and their bone density is much lower than non-smokers' bone density,"
and "What we show here is that excessive formation of osteoclasts by cigarette chemicals causes bone loss".
In other words, if you are a smoker, your risk of osteoporosis is increased substantially compared to a non-smoked individual.
Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.
With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of osteoporosis against bone resorption, researchers examined the lycopene a carotenoid commonly found in tomatoes and tomato products against osteoporosis risk.
The study included 23 healthy postmenopausal women, 50-60 years old, provided blood samples at baseline and following a one-month lycopene-depletion period according to the St. Michael 's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. PARTICIPANTS AND STUDY DESIGN.
According to the results of sample analysis, one-month lycopene-depletion period diet showed a significantly decreased serum lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and levels of antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx).
Furthermore, the lycopene restriction diet not only increased lipid and protein oxidation but also depression of levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), significantly.
These results lead to significant increased of the levels cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), a marker of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.
In other words, tomatoes restrictive diet increased the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
In order to reveal more information about tomato effect in osteoporosis, researchers conducted a study to determine whether lycopene would act as an antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress parameters, resulting in decreased bone turnover markers, thus reducing the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
The study included 60 postmenopausal women, 50-60 years old, following a 1-month washout without lycopene consumption, randomly divided into group consumed either (N = 15/group): (1) regular tomato juice, (2) lycopene-rich tomato juice, (3) tomato Lyc-O-Mato lycopene capsules, or (4) placebo capsules, twice daily for total lycopene intakes of 30, 70, 30, and 0 mg/day respectively for 4 months.
According to the blood sample collected at the end of the experiment, consumed juice or lycopene capsules treated groups for 4 months significantly increased serum lycopene compared to placebo.
Moreover, consumed juice or lycopene capsules treated groups for 4 months exerted a similar effect as the aforementioned study in significantly increasing the total serum antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreasing lipid and protein peroxidation and NTx compared to the placebo group.
Based on the findings, researchers said, "the daily consumption of lycopene may be important as it acts as an antioxidant to decrease bone resorption in postmenopausal women and may, therefore, be beneficial in reducing the risk of osteoporosis".
Taken altogether, tomatoes and its major bioactive compound lycopene may be considered remedies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausalwomen by Mackinnon ES1, Rao AV, Rao LG. (PubMed)
(2) Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women by Mackinnon ES1, Rao AV, Josse RG, Rao LG. (PubMed)
(3) Researchers pinpoint how smoking causes osteoporosis by the University of Pennsylvania. (Medical Press)
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