Free radical scavengers are antioxidants that inhibit free radicals before they can cause damage to the tissues and organs.
Free radicals are unstable and high reactive atoms with a single electron in the outermost ring. Therefore, in order to maintain stable, free radicals are ready to steal or donate a single electron from other stable atoms in the body, leading to a cascade that cannot be stopped until all single electron is paired or inhibited by antioxidants.
In the body, free radical is produced by cell metabolism that provides energy for body needs. Outside of the body, free radicals can be anywhere including the air we breathe and the foods we eat.
In other words, any chemical compound containing oxygen atoms can be free radicals during the process of a chemical reaction.
Most common types of free radical scavengers include
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy, excrete them through bile and urine.
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
Flavonoids neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals.
* Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, an organosulfur compound have strong odors resembling that of garlic plays an important in the functioning of enzyme regulation, control of gene expression, protein trafficking, and receptor signaling.
* Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.
* Vitamin A, C, E. D.
Vitamin A plays an important role that scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs. The vitamin also boosts the immune system in controlling free radicals, preventing oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
** Vitamin C
Vitamin C, an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carried in the blood, The vitamin not only restores the vitamin E but also fights against the forming of free radicals.
** Vitamin E
Vitamin E not only protects muscle weakness, repairs damaged tissues, lowers blood pressure and induce blood clotting in healing wound, but also moves into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation.
** Vitamin D
vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.
On finding a natural compound for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, researchers examined the alliin ability to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and fusion on osteoporosis.
According to the results of the experiment, alliin showed significant effects in improvement of bone density in osteoporotic patients by inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast fusion and differentiation.in bone resorption by blocking the signaling pathway activation.
Additional differentiation of the alliin osteoporosis protective activity, researchers found that alliin decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting the expression enzyme involved in the generation of free radicals.
In other words, alliin protects the bone density by decreasing the bone reabsorption and oxidative stress in the bone tissues.
Based on the findings, researchers wrote, "The overall results revealed that alliin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteoporosis".
Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements as a free radical scavenger against the onset of oxidative stress, pending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Alliin Attenuated RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species through Inhibiting Nox by Chen Y1,2, Sun J3, Dou C4, Li N5, Kang F6, Wang Y7, Cao Z8, Yang X9, Dong S. (PubMed)
(2) Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidantactivities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by Kim S1, Kim DB1, Jin W1, Park J1, Yoon W1, Lee Y1, Kim S1, Lee S1, Kim S1, Lee OH2, Shin D1, Yoo M. (PubMed)
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