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Friday, May 3, 2019

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Cucurbitacin B (CuB) The Potential and Natural Anti Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Functional Food

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia is a type of leukemia associated with certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a slow growing cancer compared to the acute forms of leukemia.

In the US, most cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia are found in adults age of 65 and older.

According to the American Cancer Society, approximately, 8,990 new cases will be diagnosed with CML (5,250 in men and 3,740 in women) in 2019. CML also will cause the death of 1,140 patients (660 men and 480 women) in the same years.

The lifetime risk of CML is 1 in 526 in the United States.

CML besides sharing the common of symptoms of other types of cancer, the condition also induce symptoms of easy bleeding, pain or fullness below the ribs on the left side, pale skin and sweating excessively during sleep (night sweats).

If you are experiencing some of the aforementioned symptoms, please check with your doctor to rule out the possibility.

Today, due to new drug discovery and improvement of technology, the 5-year survival rate for CML is 68% compared to only 31% in the early 1990s.

Out of many risk factors such as radiotherapy, gender, and aging, some researchers suggested that obesity may be one of the main factors that elevated the risk of the disease.

Dr. Strom SS, the lead researchers in the cancer team at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center wrote, " Obesity, measured as body mass index, has been identified as a possible risk factor for several solid tumors as well as some adult hematopoietic malignancies".

And, "Obesity at all ages was found to be an independent risk factor, with a significant dose-response effect. Among participants > or =45 years, cases gained significantly more weight each year between ages 25 and 40 compared with controls (0.78 versus 0.44 kg/y, P < 0.001) with the association strongest among those who gained >1 kg/y between 25 and 40 years of age (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.46-9.04). Our results suggest that obesity and adulthood weight gain play important roles in CML risk".

The findings strongly suggested that obese are more likely to develop CML, compared to those with normal weight.

Cucumber plant is a species of Cucumis Sativus, belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae and native to Western Asia. It is a creeping vine with roots in the ground and grows up with the support of frames.

On finding a natural and potential compound for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, researchers examined the Cucurbitacin B (CuB) antiproliferative effects on various leukemia cell lines.


Administration of CuB showed strong inhibition against various leukemia, lymphoma cell lines, primary mononuclear bone marrow cells derived from patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

CuB induced myeloid leukemic cells apoptosis through S-phase cell cycle arrest, enlarged cell size, multinucleation, and enhanced expression of a monocytic- and granulocytic-specific CD11b involved in numerous adhesion-related associations between cells such as monocytes, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and granulocytes.

Furthermore, CuB prominently altered the cytoskeletal network of leukemic cells, leading to cell death.

In order to obtain additional information about cucurbitacin B (CuB) anti myeloid leukemia activity, researchers explored the antitumor effect and action mechanism of cucurbitacin B (CuB) on human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells.

According to the tested assays, CuB inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced G 2 /M phase arrest.

CuB induced around 10% of cells undergoing apoptosis, after treatment for 24 h.

Moreover, CuB induced cancer cell autophagy observed by the accumulation of LC3-II, an indication of cleaning out damaged cells and regenerating new ones.

The results of autophagy were found to be activated by the protein associated with a significantly increased rate of recurrence and deaths.

Taken altogether, cucumber processed a higher number of CuB may be used for the treatment of leukemia, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of CuB in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Cucurbitacin B induces differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and actin cytoskeletal alterations in myeloid leukemia cells by Haritunians T1, Gueller S, Zhang L, Badr R, Yin D, Xing H, Fung MC, Koeffler HP. (PubMed)
(2) Cucurbitacin B induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy associated with G actin reduction and persistent activation of cofilin in Jurkat cells by Zhu JS1, Ouyang DY, Shi ZJ, Xu LH, Zhang YT, He XH. (PubMed)
(3) Obesity, weight gain, and risk of chronic myeloid leukemia by Strom SS1, Yamamura Y, Kantarijian HM, Cortes-Franco JE. (PubMeb)

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