Liver injury may be a result caused by physical impact or penetrating trauma. In some cases, liver injury can also be induced by toxicity, leading to acute liver injury.
Liver injury can be mild or severe. In a mild case, liver injury can recover itself. However, in severe cases. surgery to stop the bleeding and remove the part of injury may be necessary.
Most cases of liver injury can lead to abdominal pain and tenderness caused by bleeding blood in the abdomen that irritates the abdominal tissue.
The severity of a liver injury can be diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography.
According to the statistics, liver injury has been found constituting 5% of all traumas, making it the most common abdominal injury.
Liver injury can be classified by the liver injury scale, depending on the area of the damage
* Grade I <10% surface area < 1 cm in depth
* Grade II 10–50% surface area 1–3 cm
* Grade III >50% or >10 cm >3 cm
* Grade IV 25–75% of a hepatic lobe \
* Grade V >75% of a hepatic lobe
and grade VI Hepatic avulsion
In other words, based on the grade of liver injury, patients either treated with nonoperative management and observation for a full self-recovery or surgery.
Betanin is Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.
With an aim to find a natural compound for the protection of liver against injury researchers examined protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
The study included fish treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment for 20 days followed by intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight.
Where carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a highly toxic liquid chemical.
Injection of CCL4, after 3 days showed liver histological damages accompanied by the induced liver CYP2E1 activity associated with some degrees of steatosis and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT), the indication of oxidative stress.
Furthermore, CCL4 also induced liver damage expressed by the depletion of glycogen storage.
Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups reduced CYP2E1 expression, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity observed by the increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities.
Moreover, the betanin-treated groups also increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % treatment groups.
These results suggested betanin processes liver protective effects against liver injury by restoring some levels of liver function through its antioxidant activity.
Dr. Han J, the lead scientist wrote in the final report, " betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin".
Taken altogether, betanin may be considered supplements for the treatment of liver injury, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of betanin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by Han J1, Gao C, Yang S, Wang J, Tan D. (PubMed)
(2) Betanin, a beetroot component, induces nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-mediated expression of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human liver cell lines by Krajka-Kuźniak V1, Paluszczak J, Szaefer H, Baer-Dubowska W. (PubMed)
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