Cytotoxicity is a process or action that destroys the living cells, through activating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins associated with cell apoptosis and programmed cell death.
Free radical cytotoxicity is the ability of ROS in exerting the oxidative stress in the cancer cells, leading to apoptosis.
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by irregular cells growth due to DNA alternation.
Most cancers do not cause any symptoms at an early stage. However, at the later stage, a larger size of the tumor can press on the nearby blood vessels and nerve cells, causing localized bleeding and severe pain.
Most common symptoms of cancer are unintended weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue or tiredness and gastrointestinal discomforts and symptoms depending on the location of cancer.
If you experience some of the above symptoms, please check with your doctor to rule out the p[ossibility of the disease.
The causes of cancer are unknown. Researchers can not explain why people with the same health conditions, family history in the same family, some are susceptible to cancer, while others do not.
In normal cells, overproduction of free radicals or oxidative stress can affect the cell lipid, protein, leading to cell damage or alteration of cell DNA.
Most cases of natural remedy in initiating the cytotoxic effects against cancer without causing nearby healthy cells death probably are associated with the stimulation of the production of antioxidant produced by the host and the presence of antioxidants of the remedy.
Bilberry is a species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern Europe.
The herbal plant has been used as foods and herbs in traditional medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea, gastritis, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis, ulcerative colitis, anemia, cystitis, kidney disease, and psoriasis, diabetes, etc.
Researchers on finding a natural compound with cytotoxic potency examined the bilberry chemical compound in facilitating the onset of cytotoxicity against cancer and neutralizing the neuro cytotoxicity against the formation of plague on K562 Human Erythroleukemic cancer cells and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), respectively.
GroES self-assemble into amyloid fibrils similar to those observed in various neurodegenerative diseases was found to induce cells toxicity.
Before application of bilberry anthocyanins, injection of soluble intermediate aggregates of GroES exhibited neuronal cell death, rather than forming mature fibrils.
Pretreatment with anthocyanins isolated from bilberry, not only inhibited both fibril formation but also neutralized the toxicity of intermediates.
The findings strongly suggested anthocyanins processes an inhibitory effect on the amyloid fibril formation of various conformational disease-causing proteins.
Oppositely, in cancer perspective, anthocyanins stimulated the tumor suppressor genes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.
Dr. Seth P. Thibado and colleagues in the study to enhance the chemical compound the bioavailability, observed the cytotoxicity of anthocyanins in an encapsulated in 5.5 nm diameter liposomal micelles, called NutraNanoSpheres (NNS), at a concentration of 2.5 mg/50 µl [25% (w/w) anthocyanins].
Bilberry NNS induced the apoptotic/cytotoxic effects on K562 Human Erythroleukemic cancer cells.
The concentrations of bilberry demonstrated the greatest levels of percentage inhibition of 60–70% at 0.018–1.14 mg/ml (n=6) and 60% inhibition at 4 mg/ml, compared to control.
And, the lowest percentage of inhibition (30%) occurred at 2 mg/ml. The lethal dose 50 was determined to be 0.01–0.04 mg/ml of Bilberry per 105 K562 cells at 72 h of cell culture exposure.
At 48 h incubation, the highest percentage of inhibition was only 27%,.
The findings clearly suggested that NutraNanoSpheres (NNS) demonstrates direct cytotoxic effects, at a concentration which is 8–40 times lower than the levels required for bilberry if not encapsulated.
Taken altogether, bilberry processed abundantly bioactive ingredient anthocyanins may be considered a functional remedy in modulation the cytotoxic activity against cancer, pending to the confirmation of large sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Bilberry anthocyanins neutralize the cytotoxicity of co-chaperonin GroES fibrillation intermediates by Iwasa H1, Kameda H, Fukui N, Yoshida S, Hongo K, Mizobata T, Kobayashi S, Kawata Y. (PubMed)
(2) Anticancer effects of Bilberry anthocyanins compared with NutraNanoSphere encapsulated Bilberry anthocyanins by Seth P. Thibado,1 Jerry T. Thornthwaite,2 Thomas K. Ballard,2 and Brandon T. Goodman. (PMC)
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