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Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Phytochemical Alliin, Inhibits Parameters Associated with the Onset of Diabetes in Vivo

Diabetes is a chronic and medical condition associated with insufficiency of insulin in the bloodstream. In other words, it is the condition as a result of the body can not use insulin properly or produce enough insulin.

The condition is either caused by beta cells of pancreas died-off or insulin receptor site clogged-up by fat or cholesterol.

Type I diabetes is a genetic preposition involved the abnormal function of the immune system which mistakenly destroys the beta cells in the pancreas.

Most common symptoms of diabetes are associated with abnormally high blood sugar, leading to symptoms of unusual thirst frequent urination, weight change (gain or loss), extreme fatigue or lack of energy

In serious cases, untreated hyperglycemia in some patients may also cause symptoms of blurred vision or recurring infections due to cuts and bruises and erectile dysfunction.

According to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization, worldwide, the numbers of people with diabetes have risen at an alarming rate from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.

The global prevalence of diabetes has reached 8.5% among adults over 18 years of age in 2014, compared to only 4.7% in 1980.

Most common risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes in the US are family history, ethnicity, gender, insulin resistance, gestation diabetes, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, women with PCOs and aging.

However, some researchers in the concern of the rise of diabetes over the past few decades accompanied by the widespread obesity in the US suggested that the promotion of the Western diet may have a strong effect in the induction of the condition in a population with a higher genetic risk score (GRS)

Dr. Lu Qi,, the lead scientist wrote, "A widely held hypothesis is that interactions between genetic predisposition and Western-type lifestyle contribute to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D)".

And, "intakes of processed meat, red meat, and heme iron, which characterized the Western dietary pattern, showed significant interactions with GRS in relation to diabetes risk (P for interaction = 0.029, 0.02, and 0.0004, respectively). The diet-diabetes associations were more evident among men with a high GRS (≥12) than in those with a low GRS".

In other words, if you have a high GRS accompanied by Western diet, your risk type II diabetes is substantially higher compared to those who have a low GRS.

Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

With an aim to find potential and natural compound for the treatment of diabetes, researchers evaluated the preventive effect of alliin against metabolic risk factors an animal model.

The study included diet-induced obese (DIO) mice treated with drinking water with or without alliin (0.1 mg/ml) for 8 weeks.

According to the tested assays, alliin had no significant effect on the body weight, adiposity or energy balance, however, alliin treated group showed enhanced glucose homeostasis, increased insulin sensitivity and improved the lipid profile compared to control.

Further analysis of the results, researchers found that the efficacy of alliin was attributed to the modulation of the intestinal microbiota composition, typically decreased Lachnospiraceae and increased Ruminococcaceae.

Based on the findings, researchers said, "alliin has nutraceutical or even medicinal potential in the prevention of diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders".

Furthermore, in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for five weeks, researchers compared the production and therapeutic efficiency of alliin extracted from garlic leaves of plants grown under ex-situ and in situ conditions.

According to the tested assays, serum glucose, triglycerides, total lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol in diabetic rats treated with alliin produced from in situ grown plants noted significant reduction of ~54%, 15%, 14%, 20%, 24%, and 15%, while 35%, 14%, 10%, 12%, 17%, and 11% reduction was noted in diabetic rats treated with alliin without affecting the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared to other groups.

Leaf extract of plants also restored the normal levels of serum enzyme levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase which were elevated in diabetes rats.

Taken altogether, alliin may be considered a supplement for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of S-allyl-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) in DIO mice by Zhai B1, Zhang C1, Sheng Y1, Zhao C2, He X1,3, Xu W1,3, Huang K1,3, Luo Y. (PubMed)
(2) Alliin obtained from leaf extract of garlic grown under in situ conditions possess higher therapeutic potency as analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Nasim SA1, Dhir B, Kapoor R, Fatima S, Mahmooduzzafar, Mujib A. (PubMed)
(3) Genetic predisposition, Western dietary pattern, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men by Lu Qi, Marilyn C Cornelis, Cuilin Zhang, Rob M van Dam, and Frank B Hu. (PMC)

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