The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest with the main function to process of gas exchange during breathing.
In other words, lung transfer life-giving oxygen into the blood supply and remove carbon dioxide produced by cells metabolism from the blood.
Additionally, the lung is also the first line defense against inhaled particles and prevent the circulation of emboli such as blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule (fat embolism), a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material.
Lung cancer is a medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the lung as a result of the alternation of cells in the lung tissue.
Most cases of lung cancer start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining of the lung tissue, before proliferating into deeper layers to induce a tumor.
At the early stage, due to the very small size of the tumor, most patients are asymptomatic. However, as the proliferation continues over time, as the later stage, the primary lung cancer not only can elevate the general symptoms shared by all cancers accompanied by localized specific symptoms such as severe pain and bleeding, but also travel a distance away from the lung to cause secondary metastasis via circulation of blood and fluids.
Most common secondary metastatic cancers from primary lung cancer are adrenal gland, bones, brain, and liver.
Out of many risk factors associated with lung cancer, smoking has been found to a strongly negative implication to induce the early onset of the disease.
Dr. Ozlü T, the lead scientist said, "Nowadays, around one-third of adults are known to be smokers, and smoking rates are increasing among the female population. It is estimated that deaths attributable to tobacco use will rise to 10 million by 2025, and one-third of all adult deaths are expected to be related to cigarette smoking".
And, " The association between cigarettes and lung cancer has been proven by large cohort studies. Tobacco use has been reported to be the main cause of 90% of male and 79% of female lung cancers. 90% of deaths from lung cancer are estimated to be due to smoking. The risk of lung cancer development is 20-40 times higher in lifelong smokers compared to non-smokers".
The finding strongly suggested the risk of lung cancer in smokers is substantially higher compared to non-smokers.
Betanin is Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.
In the urgency to find a natural compound for the treatment of lung cancer, researchers examined the chemopreventive activity of betanin by oral consumption was investigated in two mouse lung tumor models.
The study included Vinyl carbamate (VC) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced lung tumors in female A/J mice, following by the treatment of betanin in drinking water.
Betanin significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load induced by Vinyl carbamate (VC) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P).
Precisely, tumor multiplicity and tumor load were decreased by 20% and 39% in the VC lung model, and by 46% and 65% in the B(a)P lung model, respectively.
Betanin inhibited the lung tumor by reducing the number of microvessels formation and increasing the expression of a protein associated with programs cell death.
In other words, the lung tumor inhibitory effects were involved in the induction of apoptosis and angiogenesis.
The findings strongly suggested that betanin significantly inhibits lung tumorigenesis in vivo.
Moreover, compared to capsanthin, cranberry, red onion skin, and short and long red bell peppers, betanin showed in a vitro inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induction using Raji cells.
According to the results from the lung bioassays, betanin also revealed a significant lung tumor inhibitory effect.
Taken altogether, betanin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of betanin the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Beetroot red (betanin) inhibits vinyl carbamate- and benzo(a)pyrene-induced lungtumorigenesis through apoptosis by Zhang Q1, Pan J, Wang Y, Lubet R, You M. (PubMed)
(2) Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract by Kapadia GJ1, Tokuda H, Konoshima T, Nishino H. (PubMed)
(3) Smoking and lung cancer by Ozlü T1, Bülbül Y. (PubMed)
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