During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
The oral contraceptive pill is defined as one type of birth control pill containing both estrogen and progesterone that helps to control unwanted pregnancy and reducing symptoms of abdominal pain before, during or after menstrual cycle such as endometriosis, premenstrual symptoms etc.
Since women taking the pills have the pregnancy-like state, it influences a number of nutrients
1. Vitamin B2(307)
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is an essential nutrient and plays a key role in energy production. It is is easily destroyed by light and heat. The good source of vitamin B2 is dark green leafy vegetables and lean meat. Vitamin B2 is necessary because it increases the digestive absorption of other vitamins and minerals. Intake of Oral Contraceptive Pills may cause vitamin B2 deficiency(305)
2. Vitamin B3(307)
Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is one of water-soluble B vitamins. It helps to release energy and increase the function of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins as well as strengthening the nervous system. Vitamin B3 deficiency may cause depression, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscular weakness. Intake of oral contraceptive pills have been shown to decrease the levels of vitamin B3 in the body(306).
3. Vitamin B6(3)
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. It helps to increase the amount of oxygen level in the blood that is vital for women taking the pill ( Low level of oxygen causes the heart to work harder). Vitamin B6 deficiency causes depression, confusion, skin inflammation weaken immune system. Major sources of vitamin B6 include cereal grains, legumes and vegetables,etc. Woman who is on oral contraceptive pill may decease the ability of her body's absorption of vitamin B6(305) that is essential to manufacture its own vitamin B3.
4. Folic acid(307)
Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin and also known vitamin M or B9. It is essential for women taking the oral contraceptive pill, because Increase serum of blood folic acid may interfere with vitamin B synthesis and utilization of the body(305)(306).
5. Vitamin A(306)(307)(308)
Vitamin A is a general term of Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, beta-carotene,alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin best known for its functions for vision health and antioxidant scavenger and essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues.Intake of non deficiency women may increase risk of abnormal menstrual cycle(309).
6. Vitamin C(306)(307)
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Since our body can not make vitamin C itself, we must obtain vitamin C through our diet. Study shows that taking vitamin C with oral contraceptive pill will increase estrogen absorption and stop spotting. You should stop taking the high dose of Vitamin C when the spotting stops.
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(305) Impact of hormonal contraceptives vis-à-vis non-hormonal factors on thevitamin status of malnourished women in India and Thailand. World Health Organization: Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Oral Contraceptives by Joshi UM, Virkar KD, Amatayakul K, Singkamani R, Bamji MS, Prema K, Whitehead TP, Belsey MA, Hall P, Parker RA, et al.(PubMed)
(306) Nutrition and the pill by Tyrer LB.(PubMed)
(307) Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements by Thorp VJ.(PubMed)
(308) Nutritional effects of oral contraceptive use: a review by Webb JL.(PubMed)
(309) Serum vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in malnourished women treated with oral contraceptives: effects of estrogen dose and duration of treatment by Mohan Ram M, Bamji MS.(PubMed)