Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article by Kyle J. Norton
During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
The Vitamin Choline
Choline is a water soluble vitamin and belonging to the group of vitamin B complexes, discovered by Andreas Strecker in 1864 and has been used in traditional medicine in treating heart and liver disease caused by choline deficiency.
1. Strengthens the immune system(184)
Deficiency of choline causes fat to be deposited into the liver and reduce the function of liver to fight against the abnormal forming of endometrial implants and adhesion in other parts of the body causing inflammation(183).
2. Reduce risk of high blood cholesterol
Women with endometriosis are found to have low levels of choline during their menstrual cycle. The causes of deficiency are still unknown. Choline interacts with other members in the vitamin B complex family to help in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism which are necessary to provide energy and nutrients for our body. It also helps help to strengthen the liver in bile production, which helps to reduce the level of bad cholesterol(185) resulting in decreasing the risk of heart diseases.
3. Increase function of nervous system(183)
Since choline is a chemical precursor needed to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine(188)(189), it helps to enhance the various congestion systems within the brain resulting in an improved function of the nervous system leading to reduced symptoms of endometriosis such as memory loss, poor concentration, anxiety(186), and mood swings(187).
4. Balancing hormone
Deficiency of choline causes abnormal functions of the liver(185). Since the liver plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism, deficiency of choline weakens the liver function(191) resulting in excessive or reduced estrogen(190) produced during menstrual cycle leading to hormone imbalance and endometrial cramps(192)(193).
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(183) Innate immune reactivity of the liver in rats fed a choline-deficient L-amino-acid-defined diet by Kawaratani H1, Tsujimoto T, Kitazawa T, Kitade M, Yoshiji H, Uemura M, Fukui H.(PubMed)
(184) Alterations in immune function in rats caused by dietary lipotrope deficiency: effect of age.by Nauss KM, Connor AM, Kavanaugh A, Newberne PM.(PubMed)
(185) Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet by Al Rajabi A1, Castro GS, da Silva RP, Nelson RC, Thiesen A, Vannucchi H, Vine DF, Proctor SD, Field CJ, Curtis JM, Jacobs RL.(PubMed)
(186)Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency by Veskovic M1, Mladenovic D1, Jorgacevic B1, Stevanovic I2, de Luka S1, Radosavljevic T3.(PubMed)
(187)Methyl Donor-Deficient Diet during Development Can Affect Fear and Anxiety in Adulthood in C57BL/6J Mice by Ishii D1, Matsuzawa D2, Matsuda S3, Tomizawa H1, Sutoh C2, Shimizu E2.(PubMed)
(188)Behavioral and neurochemical effects of dietary methyl donor deficiency combined with unpredictable chronic mild stress in rats by Javelot H1, Messaoudi M2, Jacquelin C3, Bisson JF2, Rozan P2, Nejdi A2, Lazarus C4, Cassel JC4, Strazielle C5, Lalonde R6.(PubMed)
(189) Acute choline supplementation in vivo enhances acetylcholine synthesis in vitro when neurotransmitter release is increased by potassium by Wecker L1, Cawley G, Rothermel S.(PubMed)
(190) The synthesis and release of acetylcholine by depolarized hippocampal slices is increased by increased choline available in vitro prior to stimulation by Wecker L(PubMed)
(191) Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation by Fischer LM1, da Costa KA, Kwock L, Galanko J, Zeisel SH.(PubMed)
(192) Aberrant estrogen regulation of PEMT results in choline deficiency-associated liver dysfunction by Resseguie ME1, da Costa KA, Galanko JA, Patel M, Davis IJ, Zeisel SH.(PubMed)
(193) Dysmenorrhea and ovulation correlation of the effect of estrogen therapy on pain, the endometrium, and the basal body temperature by HAUS LW, GOLDZIEHER JW, HAMBLEN EC.(PubMed)