During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
Prostaglandins inhibitors are men made prostaglandins hormones helped to block the production of prostaglandins(296) from our body during menstrual cycle. Over production of certain types of prostaglandins hormones cause of over contraction of uterine muscles may result in menstrual cramps. Blocking them are benefits for women with severe period pain.
I. The effectiveness
a) Inhibiting the natural prostaglandins in the women menstrual cycle will reduce the over active uterine and ovarian muscles that cause the abdominal pain(291)(292), if endometrial implants and adhesion in the wall of the ovary.
b) The medication can be brought without prescription, such as flufenamic acid, ibuprofen and naproxen(292)(293), etc.
c) They also help to reduce the heavy period(292)(293) as uterine muscles now are being controlled by the effects of the medication.
d) They are more effective in treating symptoms of menstrual cycle(294)(295) if taking together with other oral contraceptive pills.
e) They sometime may also correct the prostaglandins imbalance(296) for some women.
f) Reduced menstrual fluids(292)(293).
a) Most prostaglandins inhibitors only correct the symptoms while they are around. Symptoms of menstrual cycle will re appear when the medication is wire off.
b) Over taking porstaglandins inhibitor will severely damage the liver(298), causing variety of diseases(297).
c) The medication may cause gastro-intestine system problem(299), such as stomach pain, vomiting, nausea, constipation. Taking them with foods can reduce the above side effects.
d) Increase the risk of asthma(300), lupus(3011) and clotting disorders(302).
e) They may cause intrauterine infection(303).
3. Side effects(299)(304)
It is advised that prostaglandins inhibitors drugs should be taken with food to prevent any problem with the gastro-intestine system. Since prostaglandins inhibitors are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, they have below side effects if overdose.
3) Stomach pain
4) Micro-bleeding and ulcers
5) Abdominal cramps.
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(291) Prostaglandin inhibitors: rational therapy for dysmenorrhea by Sorbie J.(PubMed)
(292) Dysmenorrhoea and prostaglandins: pharmacological and therapeutic considerations by Dawood MY.(PubMed)
(293) Relief of dysmenorrhea with the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor ibuprofen: effect on prostaglandin levels in menstrual fluid by Chan WY, Dawood MY, Fuchs F.(PubMed)29
(294) Regulation of the 24h body temperature rhythm of women in luteal phase: role of gonadal steroids and prostaglandins by Cagnacci A1, Arangino S, Tuveri F, Paoletti AM, Volpe A.(PubMed)
(295) Pharmacologic strategies for managing premenstrual syndrome by Moline ML.(PubMed)
(296) Role of indomethacin in acute pain and inflammation management: a review of the literature by Nalamachu S1, Wortmann R.(PubMed)
(297) COX-2 signaling and cancer: new players in old arena by Misra S, Sharma K1.(PubMed)
(298) Preventive efficacy and safety of rebamipide in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mucosal toxicity by Kim JH1, Park SH1, Cho CS2, Lee ST3, Yoo WH4, Kim SK5, Kang YM6, Rew JS7, Park YW8, Lee SK9, Lee YC10, Park W11, Lee DH12.(PubMed)
(299) [Mucosa protective therapy with long-term nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs].[Article in Germanç
by Cozzarini W1, Rath J, Bauer A, Györög I, Györög M, Prenner M, Trianto T, Maderbacher H, Höller E, Grusch B, Sebesta C.(PubMed)
(300) Effects of selective COX-2 inhibition on allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation in asthma by Daham K1, James A2, Balgoma D2, Kupczyk M2, Billing B3, Lindeberg A3, Henriksson E3, FitzGerald GA4, Wheelock CE5, Dahlén SE2, Dahlén B3.(PubMed)
(301) Prostaglandin E2-mediated dysregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in pristane-induced lupus mice by Chae BS1, Shin TY, Kim DK, Eun JS, Leem JY, Yang JH.(PubMed)
(302) Endothelial prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthesis in atherogenesis and thrombosis by Wu KK.(PubMed)
(303) Expression of selected genes in preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes by Kuć P1, Laudański P, Kowalczuk O, Chyczewski L, Laudański T.(PubMed)
(304) Mitigating GI risks associated with the use of NSAIDs by Momeni M1, Katz JD.(PubMed)